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OA0-002 | Android Application Engineer(R) Certifications Basic

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Vendor Android
Exam Number OA0-002
Exam Name Android Application Engineer(R) Certifications Basic
Questions 139 Q & A
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Test Number : OA0-002
Test Name : Android Application Engineer(R) Certifications Basic
Vendor Name : Android
Q&A : 139 Dumps Questions

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Android applications safety — half 1, reverse engineering and token storage problems | OA0-002 Dumps and Real exam Questions with VCE Practice Test

There are many ways that you would be able to store keys and tokens in your Android applications — without delay in the code, internal your database or by using NDK layer. but in terms of security — in the event you do it at all?

this article will exhibit you essentially the most commonplace approaches you could use to store several types of keys and tokens to your Android applications, whereas proving that none of these strategies is decent ample 😉. The second half will comprise greater particular issues related to how our software may still talk securely with the server, the way to be certain the authentication of each entities, and the way the attacker can have an effect on our connection.

searching inner our functions (reverse engineering)

The functions which we use on our devices are in fact appropriately packed .apk info containing the entire data required to function as it should be. If we need to view their content and see what's hidden there, we need to make some fundamental preparations. firstly, we want a device with the intention to allow us to talk with the cellular equipment using our computing device — Android Debug Bridge is what we are searching for. Secondly if we are looking to disassemble our .apk files into separated supply code info (.smali classes), Apktool looks to be the superb choice. Now you’re likely questioning what this “.smali” format is, so let’s get into some idea. when you create your application code, the .apk file includes a .dex file with a binary Dalvik bytecode inner, which is the structure that the platform really knows, however’s horrible to examine or edit. happily, there are tools like the aforementioned Apktool that convert .dex files into (and from) a human readable illustration — and probably the most commonplace layout is referred to as Smali.

So what are the steps we need to perform to look interior any software in our cell machine?

  • Step 1: Print the names of the device packages (installed purposes) with an associated base file the usage of the Android Debug Bridge and command line:
  • adb shell pm record applications -f

    here is the trial output:

    machine packages checklist output
  • Step 2: select the app and download it the use of the adb device:
  • adb pull <kit-name>/base.apk

    the bottom.apk file is now in our desktop in the adb directory, so let’s decompile it

  • Step 3: Decompile the downloaded .apk file the usage of apktool:
  • apktool d -r base.apk

    ‘d’ — decompile, ‘-r’ — don't decode elements

  • Step four: Open the .smali info inside the created ‘base’ listing and take a look at to discover some secrets and techniques 😉
  • Token storage problem

    In most situations when we create an internet carrier designed to handle leisure queries from our utility, we need to be sure that they arrive from one specific supply. the most common solution to achieve here's to ship a selected software token as a parameter directly within the url tackle, as an http Header or in a submit body. When the server receives a question containing this type of token, it compares it with the one saved internally, and if each are the same, it sends the necessary information back to the client. so long as the token kept on the server’s aspect is relatively comfy, there's a problem with the one on the customer’s facet. right here example suggests the supply code of an easy software with some internet carrier blanketed — the token used for authentication is stored as a continuing value at once in the code.

    using the reverse engineering recommendations described previous we are able to now decompile an .apk file of the application containing the above code and browse the contents of the .smali file. Let’s have a closer seem to be on the connectToWebservice() characteristic.

    As which you could see in line 9 our SECRET_TOKEN value is assigned to the variable v1, which is later used within the connect() formulation in line eleven. during this instance, the acquiring our secret key easily kept as a constant value in the supply code changed into handy and didn't require using any advanced suggestions and tools.

    The 2nd example is the method involving the undertaking construct tool — Gradle. first of all, we create a keystore.residences file in our root assignment directory, which carries the definition of our SECRET_TOKEN.

    Then we encompass this file in our app construct.gradle.

    and at last, using the BuildConfig classification, we can gain the SECRET_TOKEN price in our connectToWebservice() function.

    the usage of the same techniques as before, let’s decompile the .apk file and seem into the MainActivity.smali category.

    As which you can see, even with the steps we’ve taken to doubtlessly provide a much better strategy to cozy our token, after decompiling the utility its price is just as visible as earlier than. It feels like it’s time to deliver out the massive guns — including the NDK layer.

    The Android NDK is a toolset that lets us implement materials of our app in a native code, the usage of languages equivalent to C and C++. The leading advantage of together with native support is that the code written in C/C++ is compiled into machine directions which are run without delay by using the device CPU. Many multimedia or video-processing functions use native code for processor-intensive initiatives. on the grounds that that the C/C ++ code is in a distinct layer, the decompiled type containing the NDK reference may still no longer contain the code from the reduce degree, so if we location our SECRET_TOKEN there, we usually are not capable of see it. Let’s verify it in our application.

    So when our endeavor category is created, the “native-lib” is loaded. because of this we will use the exterior getSecretKey() feature, returning String with our SECRET_TOKEN at once from the NDK layer. Let’s take a glance into the C++ getSecretKey() implementation.

    It’s simply a simple function returning the challenging-coded token cost. Reverse engineering of our application proves that the SECRET_TOKEN isn't visible any more.

    however our token isn't any longer visible within the .smali file, the simplest issue we’ve brought for the potential attacker is with ease that he has to take a few greater steps and appear deeper into our source code. strategies written in native layers are saved in the “lib” folder with the .so extension. we are in a position to decompile them to desktop code the usage of, for instance, the IDA disassembler. due to diverse processor architectures used by way of a number of Android contraptions there are four styles of .so info inner our .apk — arm64-v8a, armeabi-v7a, x86 and x84_64. Let’s opt for x86 version of our native library. After effectively decompiling the file into laptop code we need to seek the Java_<package-name>_secretKey() characteristic and analyse its code.

    Our secret token is saved at 00031019, 0003101F, 00031026 and 0003102D as hexadecimal arrays represented in little-endian structure, so we should concatenate them, convert the result to string and reverse its order, the use of e.g. a string-services web site. Summarizing, the whole technique of the retrieval of our SECRET_TOKEN looks like this:

    3D32676E2D3135553D613126626A → =2gn-15U=a1&bj → jb&1a=U51-ng2=

    If we persevered the process of hiding our token more and more deeply, we'd likely ultimately attain the OWASP Crackmes site containing applications written as key-retrieval challenges — inspite of their difficulties, the key token hidden somewhere in the utility become in each and every case extra or less handy to get well.

    Reverse engineering — code injection

    in spite of how deeply the key key changed into hidden in our application, instead of losing time on looking for it within the location where it changed into saved, we can are attempting to capture it where it is basically used — e.g. positioned as a parameter of the feature sending it in some leisure query. The simplest way to obtain this is to debug our software by means of environment a breakpoint in the region where the token has to be assigned to e.g. some function. although, the problem is that applications published on Google Play save are through default non-debuggable. The solution is to use the simplest form of code injection — atmosphere the android:debuggable=”actual” parameter within the application downloaded to our desktop. It has to be set in the AndroidManifest.xml file observed within the directory containing the decompiled source of our app. After that, we are able to build a brand new .apk file containing modified information the usage of Apktool.

    apktool b base -o app-modified.apk

    “b” — build “-o” — output

    sadly, if you try to install a modified .apk, you're going to get an error: [INSTALL_PARSE_FAILED_NO_CERTIFICATES]. It’s as a result of Android requires that every one APKs be digitally signed with a certificate earlier than they will also be put in. Let’s resolve it by means of producing a key and keystore and signing it the usage of jarsigner.

    jarsigner -verbose -keystore <customized.keystore> -signedjar <signed-output>.apk <unsigned-app>.apk <keystore-alias>

    Opening our modified re-signed APK the usage of Android Studio’s “Profile or Debug APK” option (with a Smalidea plugin installed) and environment the breakpoint in the desired location results in revealing our secret token without delay within the debug window.

    Retrieving the secret token the use of .smali debugger

    through the use of extra advanced methods of code injection, we're ready, as an example, to trade the style our application works to gain definite statistics — e.g. developing a class that has a static formulation of accepting a string as a parameter and copying it to the gadget clipboard. through injecting a call to this components in a spot where the token is used we should be in a position to effortlessly acquire it. here is notably useful for functions that have security assessments verifying whether our equipment is rooted, if the debug mode enabled or if the ADB is energetic — we can set up the modified application on a ‘comfortable’ equipment and simply study the cost at once from the clipboard. on the identical time, it's going to be saved in intellect that any interference with the supply code requires us to re-signal the utility with our customized certificates. Some apps may additionally have mechanisms to investigate even if they've been signed with the acceptable key and in case of their incompatibility, they might also not permit an extra system to run. happily, code injection also allows for us to disable services the place these conditions are established (see: OWASP Crackmes level 3 — disabling security check).


    inspite of how lots we will are trying to offer protection to our purposes in opposition t the unauthorized use of our secret key, a potential attacker with the appropriate potential and equipment would not have a whole lot difficulty in studying its cost. therefore, the only comparatively cheap technique to supply protection to our key is to in no way let it touch our application. here's especially true for keys that will also be used from any supply, e.g. Google areas API keys. in this case, our utility may still query our inner server having the acceptable token, which then performs a query to some next source the use of our API customer key. but if storing tokens inner our apps isn't recommended, how can our server investigate that the query it has simply received comes from a depended on supply? See the second a part of this text!

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