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250-253 | Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix

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250-253 - Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix - braindump

Vendor Symantec
Exam Number 250-253
Exam Name Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix
Questions 235 Q & A
Recent Update January 15, 2019
Free PDF Download 250-253 Brain Dump
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250-253 exam Dumps Source : Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix

Test Code : 250-253
Test Name : Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix
Vendor Name : Symantec
Q&A : 235 Real Questions

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Symantec Symantec Administration of Veritas

Symantec's Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 for VMware ESX provides excessive Availability and disaster healing for physical and digital Server Environments | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

supply: Symantec

November 07, 2006 08:00 ET

Veritas Cluster Server for VMware ESX Simplifies Cluster Administration and Automates Failover for VMware virtual Servers across Heterogeneous Networks

CUPERTINO, CA -- (MARKET WIRE) -- November 7, 2006 -- Symantec Corp. (NASDAQ: SYMC) today unveiled Veritas™ Cluster Server (VCS) 5.0 for VMware ESX, bringing high availability and catastrophe recuperation to heterogeneous statistics centers operating digital server application. VCS for VMware ESX automates faraway failover for disaster healing and offers management of clustered virtual and physical servers. supreme to evade downtime in case of software, virtual computer, network link, or server failures, VCS for VMware ESX centralizes cluster management in a single ESX server or throughout a campus or WAN. VCS is a key element of Veritas Server groundwork, a set of items which enables enterprise shoppers to find in element what's operating on the servers of their facts middle, actively control and administer those servers, and make sure that mission vital purposes working on those servers are at all times attainable. Symantec can be demonstrating VCS for VMware ESX on the VMworld 2006 conference being held in los angeles this week.

"VMware administrators are trying to find tools that no longer most effective automate catastrophe restoration however help them lower the vulnerabilities linked to running dissimilar virtual servers on the same actual server," spoke of Poulomi Damany, director of product administration for Symantec's records middle management community. "Veritas Cluster Server for VMware ESX solves these complications through combining disaster recuperation and high availability, and consolidating control of both virtual and actual servers and their dependencies."

VCS for VMware ESX complements Symantec's clustering solutions for windows, Linux and UNIX platforms. Symantec is the market leader in pass-platform server clustering, in keeping with the 2006 edition of the IDC international Clustering and Availability software document(1). With brought assist for VMware ESX, the market's most time-honored digital server platform, VCS for VMware ESX provides a single solution to consolidate management of VMware digital servers in heterogeneous records center environments.

finished high Availability and disaster restoration

VCS for VMware ESX provides excessive availability and catastrophe healing for actual and virtual servers. by way of simplifying and automating far flung failover for VMware digital server environments, VCS for VMware ESX gives added coverage in opposition t digital computing device or application screw ups, including:

-- software and resource monitoring, as well as server monitoring, which offers a stronger stage of availability; -- automated recuperation from application, network storage, virtual resource, virtual server, and actual server screw ups; -- Centralized management of digital and physical substances and servers from a single console; -- finished checking out for catastrophe recuperation integrating both software failover and records replication to allow organizations to test catastrophe healing with out disrupting construction environments. "because it managers are trying to rein in server sprawl and enrich resource utilization across the business, they're confronted with the problem of deploying numerous facts availability and management solutions to control and give protection to an ever-transforming into inhabitants of digital servers," spoke of Brian Babineau, Analyst, commercial enterprise approach neighborhood. "With VCS for VMware ESX, Symantec has simplified the task for VMware purchasers through providing a single platform that may steer clear of downtime of mission important functions operating in virtual and physical server environments across any distance and any platform."

New support for VMware ESX

VCS for VMware ESX additionally makes it possible for shoppers to maximize the advanced facets of VMware through recognizing and seamlessly interoperating with VMware's VMotion and distributed useful resource Scheduler (DRS). If a digital computer is moved from one server to one more for planned preservation the usage of VMotion, the circulation could be diagnosed by means of VCS and VCS will take the crucial motion to update the cluster reputation accordingly. it's additionally suitable with allotted aid Scheduler (DRS), VMware's workload optimization characteristic.

computerized catastrophe restoration trying out

unique to VCS is fire Drill, a feature of VCS that offers an delivered layer of insurance policy for virtual servers. With hearth Drill, businesses can check their disaster restoration plan and configuration devoid of impacting the construction atmosphere. In digital environments where server places exchange frequently, fireplace Drill helps video display and track cellular servers, their configuration and dependency hyperlinks.

rate and Availability

Veritas Cluster Server for VMware ESX is scheduled to be released in the first quarter of 2007. Pricing for VCS for VMware ESX begins at $1,995 per server.

About Symantec

Symantec is the area leader in proposing options to assist individuals and companies assure the safety, availability, and integrity of their suggestions. Headquartered in Cupertino, Calif., Symantec has operations in 40 international locations. greater information is attainable at www.symantec.com.

(1) IDC, international Clustering and Availability software 2005 seller Shares, Doc #203676, October, 2006

be aware TO EDITORS: if you'd like additional information on Symantec employer and its products, please consult with the Symantec information Room at http://www.symantec.com/news. All expenditures mentioned are in U.S. greenbacks and are valid handiest within the u.s..

Symantec and the Symantec emblem are emblems or registered trademarks of Symantec service provider or its affiliates in the U.S. and different countries. other names may be emblems of their respective house owners.


Symantec: partners can predict unified protection method | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

With the fresh news of the $8 billion buyout of Veritas to The Carlyle neighborhood and extra traders, Symantec this week outlined, to SearchITChannel, the company's strategic direction and focus over the subsequent 12 to 18 months, and touched on the position Symantec companions will play going ahead.

Amit Jasuja, senior vice chairman of products, commercial enterprise safety with Symantec mentioned the new Symantec, as a pure protection company, is guided via what's being called, a unified protection strategy that includes a methodology element and expertise point.

The technology element is to use huge information analytics on appropriate of a ton of world telemetry data -- collected from Symantec's large world hazard intelligence community -- to support consumers develop into smarter about safety. Symantec calls this or not it's unified safety analytics platform.

The unified safety approach takes the analytics statistics to make Symantec's safety products smarter and more adaptable.

"feel a few possibility-based mostly remarks loop that makes these items smarter about threats," Jasuja referred to.

a much better cloud focus

yet another component that Symantec companions will observe concerning the seller going forward is a better center of attention on cloud and presenting more advantageous cloud protection. in response to a company spokeswoman, 81% of Symantec's enterprise flows via channel partners.

Our purpose, as we break away Veritas, is to establish the correct partners that have amazing security interest and focus on enabling them. Amit JasujaSenior vice chairman of products, business safety, Symantec

Jasuja defined that many Symantec shoppers are relocating statistics into Microsoft workplace 365, field, Microsoft Azure and Amazon internet features, as an instance, for functions, compute or storage, and are more and more using mobile contraptions.

"users don't always need their mobile instruments to connect to a VPN, which may additionally create perform problems," observed Jasuja.

So, Symantec is constructing a cloud safety broker, a broker in the cloud, it is able to take care of all of the normal threats in addition to counsel insurance policy challenges of enterprise clients, he defined.

The cloud protection broking service is a cloud-based mostly manage point that integrates information loss prevention (DLP), id and analytics.

From a channel standpoint, promoting the cloud safety broking service could be simple -- no stock to elevate, no bins, no advanced selling motions. "there's a multi-tiered, channel-branded web page the place people could location their orders," Jasuja talked about. "We set off them and away they go." He delivered that there's a simple way to configure enterprise site visitors to be routed in the course of the cloud brokers, which should be dispersed during the globe.

the primary cloud protection broking service products delivered had been DLP for workplace 365 (e mail) and DLP for Cloud Storage for field, announced in June. are expecting to peer further cloud-based items that allow endpoint management, statistics center security and identification management, as an example.

There are two extra areas of center of attention for Symantec going forward: possibility protection and cyber security features.

Symantec's possibility insurance policy approach addresses the total advanced hazard insurance policy cycle: stay away from, detect, reply and predict. "Our aim is to deliver a solution that is greater unified and offers with all of a corporation's control points, i.e., email, network, gateway, endpoint, cloud," spoke of Jasuja.

these days, Symantec offers superior chance insurance plan products for the community and for e-mail.

The seller's cyber protection functions method falls in the managed safety services house. in response to Jasuja, expect to see the enterprise lead with its cyber security services.

these days, Symantec offers a protection monitoring service and an adversary hazard intelligence provider. multiplied features will encompass incident response and forensics features and safety simulation services for protection preparedness and usual fitness assessments.

All items mentioned through Jasuja can be available in the market with the aid of year-end.

partner opportunity

The fast transforming into protection market presents first rate company opportunity increase for partners, based on Symantec.

"Our companions are looking to expand their presence with purchasers and be capable of do more outcome-based work. They need anything that is more straightforward, built-in, creates greater synergy, a single factor of buy, a single aspect of administration, and single aspect of manage," Jasuja talked about.

having said that, purchasers wish to protect their atmosphere holistically, no longer stitch collectively discrete protection pieces, i.e., malware, endpoint administration and patching, and DLP, he delivered.

On the unified security and analytics aspect, there may be a turning out to be possibility for Symantec companions to carry intelligence to their consumers. "With intelligence and analytics, partners might be in a position to deliver more desirable solutions, stronger capabilities that help valued clientele optimize the tools they've," pointed out Jasuja.

additionally, as more groups movement records backyard the perimeter of their records facilities and into the cloud, protection turns into an argument. final year, Forrester research suggested that the marketplace for cloud-primarily based safety items became $300 million. The analysis company envisioned a 40% compound annual increase expense (CAGR) for the cloud-based mostly safety product market achieving $2 billion by means of 2020 -- one other effective possibility for partners.

"Our purpose, as we cut loose Veritas, is to determine the appropriate companions that have robust security interest and focal point on enabling them, featuring them with content, training, or capabilities on how we market and sell together -- you're going to see loads of investment in that area," Jasuja noted.


With Veritas' Operational Separation complete, What's next For Symantec? | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

No outcomes found, are attempting new keyword!main protection application dealer Symantec is likely to focal point on acquisitions and R&D investments now that the divestiture of its assistance administration company, Veritas, procedures. The sale will tra...


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250-253 exam Dumps Source : Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix

Test Code : 250-253
Test Name : Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix
Vendor Name : Symantec
Q&A : 235 Real Questions

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Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix

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Implementing Security, Part II: Hardening Your UNIX/Linux Servers | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Continuing with part 2 of this two-article series, Joseph Dries helps you continue to expand upon your list of basic security processes by looking at UNIX/Linux hardening, protecting your servers from network based TCP/IP attacks, and utilizing centralized logging servers.

This article was excerpted from The Concise Guide to Enterprise Internetworking and Security.

"A commercial, and in some respects a social, doubt has been started within the last year or two, whether or not it is right to discuss so openly the security or insecurity of locks. Many well-meaning persons suppose that the discussion respecting the means for baffling the supposed safety of locks offers a premium for dishonesty, by showing others how to be dishonest. This is a fallacy. Rogues are very keen in their profession, and already know much more than we can teach them respecting their several kinds of roguery. Rogues knew a good deal about lockpicking long before locksmiths discussed it among themselves, as they have lately done. If a lock—let it have been made in whatever country, or by whatever maker—is not so inviolable as it has hitherto been deemed to be, surely it is in the interest of honest persons to know this fact because the dishonest are tolerably certain to be the first to apply the knowledge practically; and the spread of knowledge is necessary to give fair play to those who might suffer by ignorance. It cannot be too earnestly urged, that an acquaintance with real facts will, in the end, be better for all parties." —Charles Tomlinson's "Rudimentary Treatise on the Construction of Locks," published around 1850

It has been said that the wonderful thing about standards is there are so many to choose from. The same choice is available in the UNIX arena. There are two basic flavors, BSD-derived and AT&T System V-derived. BSD-derived UNIX systems include OpenBSD, FreeBSD, NetBSD, BSDi, MacOS X, and SunOS 4. System V-derived UNIX systems include HP-UX and Solaris (SunOS 5). Other UNIX systems, such as AIX, provide commands that will act BSD-ish or System V-ish, depending on how they were invoked. Linux is not derived from any UNIX, but depending on the distribution, borrows from both BSD and System V semantics. Actually, Linux itself is just the operating system kernel and supporting drivers. Most Linux distributions use the GNU system (http://www.gnu.org), thus they are called GNU/Linux distributions. There are hundreds of available GNU/Linux distributions, but even the "top 5" are different in their default commands, startup scripts, filesystem layout, included utilities, and packaging systems.

What does this mean to you? Unlike Windows NT, including Windows 2000, it is a far more complex process to describe how to harden a UNIX/Linux server. This next section provides some common procedures that can be applied across UNIX versions and GNU/Linux distributions. Following that are some pointers to living documents on the Internet, which track available data and releases, and go into a more detailed account of how to harden a server for a particular task.

Common Steps for Hardening UNIX/Linux Servers

The process of building a UNIX or GNU/Linux server for use as a firewall or DMZ server begins with installation. Eliminating points of attack, such as filling the filesystem, or removing unnecessary libraries and services, is equivalent to removing possible entry points for intruders.

Some common guidelines for configuring UNIX servers with a more secure default stance are available from CERT's Web site at ftp://info.cert.org/pub/tech_tips/UNIX_configuration_guidelines.

Partition for Protection

Besides having separate partitions for the obvious, such as SWAP and /tmp, you should protect against out-of-disk-space denial-of-service attacks. Intruders might try to create excessive generation of logging data or fill your file system with large files through FTP or mail spool. The best way to protect against this is to segment the filesystem hierarchy into separate physical partitions.

The root partition / can be small because it generally contains just the kernel—the necessary files, libraries, and configuration for booting in /bin, /sbin, /etc, and /lib. Access to the attached devices is provided through the /dev and /devices directories. Many GNU/Linux distributions store kernels and symbol data in the /boot directory, whereas kernel libraries are stored under /lib.

The /usr partition is normally where user-accessible applications are stored. Normally, /usr does not contain data or configuration files that change; therefore, an added security measure can be mounted as read-only.

The /var partition stores system logs and data services such as mail, Web, databases, printing, running services, package management, and so on. On a mail server, you might want to make /var/spool/mail, or /var/mail in Solaris, a separate partition, or—even better—a separate disk array. If you only create one separate partition from /, /var is the one you should separate.

The /usr/local directory structure, and in Solaris the /opt directory, often contains locally installed optional software, configuration files, and data. /usr/local is normally not affected by operating system upgrades. Depending on how you use those directories, they too can be mounted as read-only.

These are suggestions and guidelines only, and are different from recommended settings for a system that contains user accounts, usually in /home.

Disable Extraneous inetd Services

inetd is the UNIX "Internet Super Server." It is a daemon process that is invoked at boot time and reads in a flat file configuration database normally found at /etc/inetd.conf. inetd listens for incoming connections on the defined IP ports. When a connection is initiated on a defined port, it invokes the configured program to service the request. After the connection is finished, the process invoked to service that request terminates. This was originally designed to lighten the load and resources required for systems.

There are a number of services enabled through inetd, and almost all of them should be disabled for building firewalls and DMZ servers. Besides normally disabling FTP, TFTP, Telnet, and the Berkeley r* commands, disable the following:

  • in.named—BIND name services daemon. Except for your DNS servers, you should not be running DNS on your firewall or DMZ servers.

  • in.fingerd—Finger daemon that can be used to show user information and lists of users who are logged in. There is no reason to advertise that information to would-be intruders.

  • daytime—Connections to this service display the date and time on the system in a string format. Getting the date and time of a system is useful for an intruder trying to implement replay attacks.

  • time—Connections to this service return the time as a 32-bit value representing the number of seconds since midnight 1-Jan-1900. Do not provide intruders with your exact system time.

  • echo—This is a diagnostic service that echoes incoming data back to the connecting machine.

  • discard—This is a diagnostic service that does not echo (thus discarding) the incoming data stream back to the connecting machine.

  • chargen—This is a diagnostic service that automatically generates a stream of characters sent to the connecting machine.

  • systat—Connections to this service provide a list of all processes and their status.

  • netstat—Connections to this service provide a list of current network connections and their status.

  • Install and Configure tcp_wrappers

    Install and configure Wietse Venema's tcp_wrappers on both your firewall and DMZ servers. tcp_wrappers allows you to define access control to various services, depending on a limited set of criteria, such as username, IP address, or DNS domain.

    You might be asking why it's necessary to configure and install additional products when your firewall will be doing the same thing. And that's a valid question. The answer is to avoid single points of failure, and to provide security in layers. If one layer is pierced and bypassed, other layers will be standing guard behind the breach.

    tcp_wrappers are lightweight and extremely useful on internal servers; not just on firewalls and DMZ servers. Keep in mind that most information security breaches, intentional or accidental, happen internally. It's only the external defacements, massive distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, virus-du-jour, and stolen credit card databases that grab the press. That, and misplaced hard drives with highly sensitive nuclear information.

    tcp_wrappers have two main files that allow access to the individually defined services. The following two files are checked for rules governing access to individual or wildcard services:

    /etc/hosts.allow /etc/hosts.deny

    Like most firewalls, access is granted or denied on the first matching rule. The rules are checked in order, first in hosts.allow and then in hosts.deny.

    Care should be taken when using the KNOWN or UNKNOWN wildcards. ALL will always match whatever criteria you are testing. Read the hosts_access manual page included with tcp_wrappers for further details on syntax and rules setup.

    tcp_wrappers is installed and configured by default on most GNU/Linux distributions and BSD releases. For those UNIX systems that do not have tcp_wrappers installed by default, they can be found at ftp://ftp.porcupine.org/pub/security/index.html. Retrieve the source, compile, and install the binaries on the servers.

    Lock Down Your DNS Server

    The Berkeley Internet Name Daemon, or BIND, is the reference implementation of the name service providing DNS for the Internet. The Internet Software Consortium (ISC) is responsible for implementing and maintaining BIND. There are three basic versions of BIND: BIND 4, BIND 8, and (recently) BIND 9.

    BIND 4 has been around forever, and has its share of exploits. Only very old versions of UNIX systems and GNU/Linux distributions came with BIND 4. Still, you'll be surprised how many installations still have the older BIND 4 running. You should upgrade to a newer version of BIND. The unfortunate thing is that the file format defining the zones served by the server has changed. There are conversion scripts, but there is sure to be some hand editing.

    BIND 8 is the current stable release, and offers many more features and better control and granularity in access control. The settings described later are discussed with BIND 8 in mind.

    BIND 9 was released late in 2000. It offers many new features, such as IPv6 support, DNSSEC, full Dynamic DNS, incremental zone transfers, multiple views (internal, external, and so on) from a single server, and scalability improvements. If any of those features are important to your configuration, you should investigate using BIND 9; otherwise, it's best left to the adventurous.

    Although almost all UNIX systems and GNU/Linux distributions come with BIND as the name server, it is important you make sure you are at a recommended release. Before deploying a DNS server, internally or on the DMZ, make sure it is at least version 8.2.2-P5. Any version prior to that has serious exploits. This warning should not be ignored. The Internet Software Consortium themselves have issued a statement that if you are running any version of BIND prior to 8.2.2-P5, you should assume your server has already been compromised. Check your UNIX system or GNU/Linux distribution. If the version of BIND is not at least 8.2.2-P5, check with your vendor for upgrades. If an upgrade is not available, you can compile a version of BIND yourself on a workstation, and install the binaries on your server. The source code can be found at http://www.isc.org/products/BIND/.

    First, restrict zone transfers to specific secondary servers in your primary zones. The acl command allows you to define an access control list composed of blocks of addresses to be used with a named identifier. Using ACLs provides a self-documenting method of administrating the named.conf configuration file. In the following example, we define two ACLs comprising our externally visible DNS servers and the secondary servers at our ISP:

    acl your-company-dns { 172.16.30.12; 172.16.30.24; }; acl your-ISP-dns { 199.177.202.10; 204.95.224.200; };

    The following allow-transfer option directive placed in your named.conf file will default all defined zones to only allow transfers for the defined hosts:

    options { allow-transfer { your-company-dns; your-ISP-dns; }; };

    You can override the allow-transfer statement in the options directive by placing the allow-transfer statement in the zone definition:

    zone "yourdomain.com" { type master; file "db.yourdomain-com"; allow-transfer { 172.16.30.12; 192.168.71.200; }; }

    The default allow-transfer option will prevent zone transfers to hosts not specified in the ACLs. However, if you want to restrict all zone transfers on your secondary servers and any secondary zones on your primary servers, use predefined match list none. This can be accomplished with the following allow-transfer directive in your zone definitions:

    zone "yourdomain.com" { type slave; file "db.yourdomain-com.s"; masters { 192.168.71.1; }; allow-transfer { none; }; };

    Finally, because you will be allowing recursive queries through your servers, it's best to enable access control lists for your internal networks. Using a nested, named acl with the allow-query option in the zone definition, you can then restrict recursive queries to internal hosts only as seen in the following example:

    acl internal-net { 192.168.71.0/24; }; acl dmz-net { 172.16.30.0/24; }; acl trusted-hosts { localhost; internal-net; dmz-net; }; zone "yourdomain.com" { type master; file "db.yourdomain-com" allow-query { trusted-hosts; }; };

    Que's Concise Guide to DNS and BIND by Nicolai Langfeldt is a wonderful resource to further grok BIND configuration and maintenance.

    Tighten Sendmail Default Options

    Send mail comes with just about every UNIX/Linux installation as the default mail transfer agent (MTA). As a result of being so widely installed, it has been estimated that sendmail handles a majority of the email on the Internet. Because it runs as suid root, sendmail exploits affect millions of machines.

    sendmail version 8.11.0 is available at the time of publication, and supports new features such as STARTTLS and SMTP AUTH encryption. Upgrade to the newest version available, if possible, but please make sure that you are running a version no later than version 8.9.3 because of security exploits.

    To enable the Realtime Blackhole List feature, use the following in your sendmail.mc file:

    FEATURE(rbl)dnl

    Additionally, you might want to disable the SMTP VRFY and EXPN commands in sendmail. These commands are often used by intruders to gather information about your system:

    define(´confPRIVACY_FLAGS', ´novrfy,noexpn')dnl

    There are several additional flags you can set to make sendmail have a more secure stance:

  • authwarnings—Add X-Authentication-Warning header in messages on certain conditions that might indicate mail system spoof attempts.

  • needmailhelo—Require that the sending site uses the SMTP HELO command first when connecting to send email.

  • needexpnhelo—Require that the sending site uses the SMTP HELO command before allowing any EXPN usage.

  • needvrfyhelo—Require that the sending site uses the SMTP HELO command before allowing any VRFY usage.

  • noreceipts—Disable Delivery Status Notification (DSNs) of delivery and read receipts.

  • goaway—Set all flags except restrictmailq and restrictqrun.

  • restrictmailq—Prevent users from using the mailq command to view the contents of the mail queue.

  • restrictqrun—Stop users from processing the queue.

  • Better than sendmail: Making Postfix Your MTA

    According to its Web page, Postfix's goals are "to be fast, easy to administer, and secure, while at the same time being sendmail compatible enough to not upset existing users."

    Postfix was primarily written by Wietse Venema of tcp_wrappers fame. Postfix was designed to be modular, thus Postfix is not a single executable like sendmail; rather, Postfix comprises a collection of specialized programs that perform specific tasks. All the programs except for the master control process (oddly called master because it runs without root privilege) run as nonprivileged users, limiting the damage an attacker can inflict on your system. Because of the speed, ease of configuration (and thus less chance of misconfiguration), and security, it is recommended that you investigate replacing sendmail with Postfix. For those of you who do not dream in sendmail.cf syntax, Postfix will make email administration both easier and more secure.

    Postfix is now distributed with most GNU/Linux and BSD releases, although it is not often installed by default. Usually, it is a simple matter of installing it via your package management system, or (in the BSD case) via the ports collection.

    If you are using an operating system that does not distribute Postfix, despair not. You can download and compile the sources easily on a development workstation and then install the binaries on your mail server. The sources, FAQs, and documentation can be found at http://www.postfix.org/

    Linux-Specific Tasks

    There are many GNU/Linux distributions out there. Each vendor has its own installation process, which usually changes between new versions of the vendor's distribution. The "forerunners" of GNU/Linux distributions are Red Hat, SuSE, TurboLinux, Mandrake, Caldera, Slackware, and Debian. That does not mean specifically that you should use any one of them because the high number of distributions allows vendors to tailor their GNU/Linux distributions to specific tasks such as embedded systems, routers, and firewalls. Take the time to carefully investigate the available distributions, and determine which best fits your needs.

    With that said, two of these general distributions stand out, but for different reasons. Red Hat, because it has had the most name recognition, and is usually the first to get any sort of corporate support in the way of commercial software or commercial technical service. Many vendors, such as Oracle, IBM, and Check Point, have released products for Red Hat-specific distributions. This does not mean that those software releases will not run on other GNU/Linux distributions, but if there is a problem, the vendor might not support your installation of its product on a non-Red Hat distribution.

    Debian is the second distribution that deserves mention. First, not because it is entirely free, but because it is maintained by a nonprofit organization made up entirely of volunteers. These volunteers are highly motivated by quality and pride in their efforts to make Debian the most stable and completely 100% free distribution available. Debian has proven to be extremely stable and easy to manage and upgrade remotely. The upgrade process is by far the easiest of any of the GNU/Linux distributions. Debian installations can be upgraded without the need for reboots, replacing every installed package and running process excepting the kernel. Additionally, the Debian packaging system and its front ends allow extremely fine-grained control over which packages, utilities, libraries, and files exist on your system. Debian also is currently available on six different architectures, with more than 3,900 included software packages to select from when installing.

    For both Debian and Red Hat installations, you should choose custom installations, and select the individual packages you want on your system. There should be no need to install development packages, any of the new KDE or GNOME desktops, and certainly not X Window. Unfortunately, neither distribution yet has a minimal secure server or firewall predefined install-set.

    During the installation process, you should choose to enable shadow password file support; choose to use MD5 hashes for the passwords rather than the normal crypt function. If you miss these options during the install, you can change them after installation. In Red Hat, use the setup utility. In Debian, you can use the shadowconfig utility to enable or disable shadow passwords. To enable MD5 hashes, you have to edit the appropriate files under /etc/pam.d to include md5 on the password lines.

    You should also enable ipchains support, even if this is an application server on the DMZ. ipchains provides additional layers of security, and allows you to protect the server from traffic should the firewall fail for some reason. A sample ipchains configuration is discussed later in the article.

    You should additionally read and monitor the security and errata/updates lists from your distribution vendor. With Debian, it is extremely easy to automatically install security updates using the apt-get utility. For Red Hat installations starting with the 6.0 release, there is the up2date utility to retrieve updated packages for your release.

    For those people who choose to install Red Hat Linux, there is a security-related project called Bastille Linux, whose aim is not just to harden your Linux installation, but to educate the administrators on how to harden the system. Bastille Linux supports Red Hat and Mandrake Linux distributions with project goals to become distribution, and UNIX flavor, agnostic. The Bastille Linux product is a set of scripts that asks a series of questions and then allows you to apply those modifications to your system. The questions describe what needs to be done, why it should be done, and why you might not want to do it. It is very educational, especially for those administrators just getting familiar with Linux. Bastille Linux can be found at http://www.bastille-linux.org/.

    Another excellent source of information for administrators is the Linux Administrator's Security Guide. It covers an extremely wide array of topics related to Linux and security. You can find the Linux Administrator's Security Guide online at http://www.securityportal.com/lasg/.

    Solaris-Specific Tasks

    Solaris has four default install-sets: Core, End-User, Developer, and Entire Distribution. Installing any install-set higher than the Core installation will enable more services than are required for DMZ servers or firewalls. In reality, you can often remove a significant percentage of the default Core install-set, depending on your server's application requirements.

    For Solaris-based servers, there are several excellent documents from Sun in its Blueprints Online archive at http://www.sun.com/software/solutions/blueprints/online.html. The following three papers are excellent starting points for building secure Solaris servers:

  • "Solaris Operating Environment Minimization for Security: A Simple, Reproducible and Secure Application Installation Methodology" by Alex Noordergraaf and Keith Watson. Although this paper specifically covers the iPlanet Web server requirements, similar requirements are necessary for using Apache or other Web servers.

  • "Solaris Operating Environment Security" by Alex Noordergraaf and Keith Watson. An overview of general security options on a Solaris server. This paper includes some specifics for the SPARC architecture; however, most of the material is applicable to Intel architectures as well.

  • "Solaris Operating Environment Network Settings for Security" by Alex Noordergraaf and Keith Watson is another excellent paper on kernel tuning and application parameters that affect network security.

  • As a matter of fact, Sun's Blueprints Online is a wealth of whitepapers outlining Best Practices regarding Solaris Operating Environments, whether it is a DMZ Web server, firewall, or internal highly available database cluster.

    Lance Spitzner also has an excellent Solaris hardening document that details the hardening process for building a Check Point FireWall-1 firewall on several recent versions of Solaris (through version 8) for the Intel and SPARC platforms. The living document resides at http://www.enteract.com/~lspitz/armoring.html.

    Finally, there is an equivalent to the Bastille-Linux hardening scripts for Solaris called TITAN. The TITAN project and documentation can be found at http://www.fish.com/titan/.

    OpenBSD-Specific Tasks

    This section concentrates on OpenBSD 2.7, which is one of the three more famous BSD variants; the others being NetBSD and FreeBSD. Each variant has focused on a different problem: NetBSD is the most portable, FreeBSD has the best performance, and OpenBSD is the most secure.

    One of the great strengths of OpenBSD is the highly secure default stance of a default install of OpenBSD. The OpenBSD Web site claims "three years without a remote hole in the default install, only one localhost hole in two years in the default install." Almost all services are disabled until the administrator has enough experience to properly configure them.

    Two additional changes necessary for an OpenBSD box to become a firewall are to disable sendmail and enable IP filter support. Both changes are made to the same file, /etc/rc.conf. To disable sendmail, change

    sendmail_flags="-q30m"

    to

    sendmail_flags=NO

    To enable IP filter support, you must change

    ipfilter=NO

    to

    ipfilter=YES

    Additionally, if you will be doing Network Address Translation (NAT), providing transparent proxying, or providing support for FTP, you must enable the ipnat option by setting ipnat=YES. Syntax for IP filters will be covered briefly later in the chapter.


    1998 in review | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    LWN 1998 Linux timeline

    This is version 1.0 of the 1998 Linux timeline. Thanks to input from many of you, many omissions from the previous version have been fixed. For those who have seen the earlier version, check out the changes page to see what got added. The permanent site for this page is and will remain:

    http://lwn.net/1999/features/1998timeline/

    We're still looking for input for the final version of this page, which will be part of the January 7, 1999 issue of LWN. Please drop us a note with your suggestions for additions to this page.

    This page was produced by Jonathan Corbet at Eklektix, Inc. Contributions have since come in from Zachary Beane, Christopher Bohn, Mark Bolzern, Malcolm Caldwell, Victor Chang, Alan Cox, David Damerell, Joe DeVita, Gael Duval, Sammy Ford, Emmanuel Galanos, Jason Haas, Hans ? (hzo), Tres Hofmeister, "Kerberus," Alexander Kjeldaas, Matthias Kranz, Barry Kwok, Erik Levy, William Mackeown, Rick Moen, Olivier M�ller, Hartmut Niemann, Rodolphe Ortalo, Rich Payne, Kelly Price, G. Branden Robinson, Greg Roelofs, Daniel Roesen, Seth David Schoen, Dan Shafer, Lewis Tanzos, Jarto Tarpio, Henri de la Vall�e Poussin, Moshe Vainer, Steve Wainstead, David A. Wheeler, Micah Yoder, and James Youngman. Many thanks to all of these folks!

    You may jump straight to the month of your choice: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, or December.

    The Linux Weekly News begins publication. The very first issue, dated January 22, was a just a tiny hint of what LWN was to become. Since then we've gotten better at it, and the Linux world has gotten much more complicated. It has been an interesting adventure.

    [Netscape]Netscape announces that they will release the source to their browser under a free software license. This almost certainly remains one of the most important events of the year; it opened a lot of eyes to what Linux and free software could provide.

    [RHAD] Red Hat Advanced Development Labs is founded. It has since become one of the higher-profile places where people are paid to develop free software, and an important component of the GNOME project. RHAD is able to attract developers like "Rasterman" and Federico Mena Quintero.

    The Stampede Linux distribution is announced. Actually, this happened in December, but the news took a while to spread... Stampede positions itself as a high-performance "real Linux hacker's" distribution.

    Word gets out that parts of the blockbuster film "Titanic" were rendered on Alpha machines running Linux. This was another important step in the "legitimization" of Linux - everybody had heard of The Titanic, and some of its success seemed to rub off on everything associated with it.

    [Qube] The Cobalt Qube is announced and immediately becomes a favorite in the trade press due to its high performance, low price, and cute form factor. Cobalt's Linux engineering is done by none other than David Miller, source of much that is good in the Linux kernel.

    [prize] The Linux user community wins InfoWorld's technical support award; Red Hat 5.0 also won their Operating System award. But it was the tech support award that truly opened some eyes; everybody had been saying that Linux had no support. This was the beginning of the end of the "no support" argument.

    [opensource] Red Hat announces that their installation support staff is running behind. They are a victim of their own success, and ask for patience while they get their act together.

    Linux according to Jesse Berst "I think it's great if you are willing to promote Linux to your boss. As long as you are aware of the risk you are taking. The risk of getting fired." (Feb. 16). "Is a Linux takeover likely? Give me a break. Of course not." (June 23). "I personally think Windows NT will be the mainstream operating system within a few years." [...] "My belief: Linux will never go mainstream" (Sep. 9). "I've always said that Linux could become a serious challenger to Microsoft's Windows NT." Sep. 28).

    Eric Raymond and friends come up with the "open source" term. They apply for trademark status, and put up the opensource.org web site. Thus begins the formal effort to push Linux for corporate use.

    Linus Torvalds and Richard Stallman win the EFF Pioneer award. The award recognizes their contributions to electronic freedom. Strangely, all mention of this seems to have vanished from the Electronic Frontier Foundation web site.

    Caldera 1.2 is released. Unlike Red Hat, which had been shipping libc6 based systems for some time, Caldera sticks with the tried and true libc5.

    The OpenBIOS project is launched, in the belief that no system is free if it depends on proprietary BIOS code. A web page is set up for the project.

    [GGI] Major battles rage over whether GGI belongs in the Linux Kernel. GGI, the "Generic Graphics Interface," seeks to produce a better defined, better supported interface to video cards on Linux and other systems. Interestingly, GGI had made no request for kernel inclusion at this time. No resolution was reached, but better communications with a number of kernel hackers did result from this episode.

    The Linux General Store opens; this is "the first walk-in Linux store." (Web page here).

    [Learning tree] Learning Tree, International adds a Linux administration course to their lineup. This course is offered frequently in the U.S. and Britain. "The quality of Linux software has improved dramatically, making it a low-cost, reliable, supported computing platform appropriate for the business environment."

    Consumer advocate Ralph Nader asks the large PC vendors (Dell, Gateway, Micron...) to offer non-Microsoft systems, including systems with Linux installed. (See InfoPolicy Notes).

    Sun offers 70% discounts for people interested in "upgrading" from Linux to Solaris.

    [Debian] [Sendmail logo] Bruce Perens, once leader of the Debian project, quits entirely in the wake of disagreements on how the project should proceed.

    Sendmail, Inc. is formed by Eric Allman, in an attempt to make money selling sendmail support services while keeping the basic sendmail code free.

    John Kirch releases his "Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 versus Unix" paper. This paper remains one of the best advocacy pieces out there, and should be required reading for anybody contemplating deployment of either technology.

    [Mozilla] The Mozilla source code hits the net. Netscape throws a huge party. The code is downloaded all over the world, and people start hacking. New features, such as strong encryption and a Qt port, are added almost immediately.

    Linus makes Inter@ctive Week's "25 Unsung Heroes of the Net" list. He is in good company, joining names like Steven Bellovin, Van Jacobson, Peter G. Neumann, and others. April was maybe about the last time that Linus could be said to be an "unsung" hero.

    Linus announces Linux 2.1.92 and declares a 2.1 feature freeze. The announcment goes as far as to say "...there are probably still bugs with some of the new code, but I'll freeze new features for the upcoming 2.2 kernel." This freeze turned out to be rather slushy, to say the least.

    The Open Group announces a new licensing policy for the X window system. New versions of X will be proprietary and only available to paying customers. They immediately withhold some security bugfixes from general distribution. XFree86 decides that it can not live with the new licensing, and declares its intent to go its own way.

    [NPR] Linux is covered by the U.S. National Public Radio news, marking one of its first appearances in the mainstream, non-technical press.

    O'Reilly holds the "first ever" Free Software Summit, featuring Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Linus Torvalds, Guido van Rossum, Eric Allman, Phil Zimmermann, Eric Raymond, and Paul Vixie.

    The Linux Weekly News daily updates page debuts. Despite LWN's intent to keep the its weekly focus, the daily page eventually exceeds the weekly newsletter in traffic. The Linux events calendar is also announced.

    Linus 3.0 is announced; the birth of Linus's second daughter causes great joy, and substantial disruption in kernel development as all work stops and many patches get lost. Some grumbling results as it becomes clear just how dependent the entire process is on Linus's continual presence.

    RH support partner logo[Avalon] Red Hat announces their commercial support program, based on a worldwide network of "support partners," of which Eklektix, Inc., the producer of the Linux Weekly News, is one.

    The Avalon Beowulf cluster at Los Alamos goes on line and immediately powers itself into the list of the fastest computers on the planet.

    Eric S. Raymond publishes "Homesteading the Noosphere" on the web; This paper gives his view of how economics of open source software can work.

    Kernel hacker Alan Cox goes to work for Red Hat.

    Bruce Perens proposes a new Linux distribution (proposal here) based on his experience with Debian. This distribution never comes about, but much of what's there later gets folded into the Linux Standard Base project.

    [Project Heresy C|Net's "Project Heresy" starts a high-profile attempt to work using only Linux. The result was a long series of articles and "radio" programs, all on the Project Heresy page.

    Sun Microsystems joins Linux International.

    [Google] The "Google" search engine pops up. Not only is it one of the best search engines around, but it's based on Linux and features a Linux-specific search page.

    Sm@rt Reseller reports that Oracle and Informix have no plans to support Linux. "In fact, many doubt that Linux-no matter how stable or how cheap-can ever compete in the corporate marketplace alongside the well-funded Windows NT and Solaris." (article here).

    [SuSE] The SuSE 5.2 distribution is released.

    [Corel] Corel formally embraces Linux. The Netwinder products are featured, and they pledge their support for the Linux system.

    The Association Francophone des Utilsateurs de Linux et des Logiciels Libres (AFUL) is formed in France. AFUL promptly becomes a force in French computer circles.

    O2 Big databases start to arrive. Support for Linux is announced by Computer Associates for their Ingres system, and by Ardent Software for their O2 object database.

    The Linux Core/Layers project was announced and became the first in a series of attempts at creating standards for Linux systems. The Core/Layers page still exists, but this project is no longer active in this form.

    "But Linux is a communist operating system in a capitalist society. Its popularity is going to lead toward its fragmentation....The big problem with Linux is that it has no apparent direction. It's in the right place at the right time, but its 15 minutes are nearly up." (PC Week, May 22).

    The Linux Weekly News moved to its own domain at lwn.net.

    A proposal goes out to create the Linux Standard Base (LSB) project. This proposal, signed by a large number of Linux luminaries, was discussed at Linux Expo and formed into a project, with Bruce Perens at the head. Numerous editorials were written and posted on FreshMeat; the list can be found on the LSB web page. The LSB then disappeared from view for a few months.

    And, yes, Linux Expo was held; a good time was had by all.

    Red Hat 5.1 was released and immediately started accumulating rather more than the usual number of updates (partly as a result of the Linux Security Audit program). There was talk of "Red Hat 5.1 service pack 1" as a result. 5.1 did eventually stabilize into a solid release.

    "First, let me say that I am uniquely unqualified to write about this week's topic. Like most of you, I've never used Linux....Linux has a snowball's chance in hell of making perceptible inroads against Windows." (The infamous John Dodge hatchet job, PC Week, June 8).

    The Open Group offers the possibility of Unix 98 certification to Linux at the Uniforum meeting. The resulting press release says "Since the Linux OS is proving to be increasingly stiff competition for NT in this marketspace, it's in the best interest of all Unix vendors for Linux to get branded so that it may compete more effectively and keep the low end UNIX 98-compliant." Very little is heard thereafter.

    The Gartner Group says there is little hope for free software. "...these operating systems will not find widespread use in mainstream commercial applications in the next three years, nor will there be broad third-party application support."

    [Wilbur] The Gimp 1.0 is released. This long-awaited release of one of Linux's highest profile tools did not disappoint.

    Stable kernel 2.0.34 is released after a long prepatch series.

    [Beowulf] The Beowulf web site shuts down temporarily due to concerns about U.S. export restrictions. Suddenly anybody can create a supercomputer, and people are getting worried. See this Dr. Dobbs article for some more background. Shortly thereafter the site (www.beowulf.org) is back up as if nothing had happened.

    The Datapro study comes out showing that Linux has the highest user satisfaction of any system; it also shows Linux to be the only system other than NT that is increasing market share.

    "Like a lot of products that are free, you get a loyal following even though it's small. I've never had a customer mention Linux to me." (Bill Gates in PC Week, June 25).

    [Netwinder] Corel launches the Netwinder DM with this press release.

    Debian 2.0 goes into beta test after numerous delays.

    [Adaptec] Adaptec reverses its longstanding nondisclosure policy and announces support for Linux. The initial deal was with Red Hat; other distribution vendors have since then announced agreements with Adaptec.

    The Chinese Linux Extension project begins; this project is doing a Chinese localization of Linux. (Web page (mix English/Chinese) here).

    IBM announces that it will distribute and support the Apache web server, after working a deal with the Apache team.

    [Rocket]

    The Silicon Valley Linux Users Group holds "The Great Linux Revolt of 1998", turning Microsoft's Windows 98 product launch celebration into a Linux publicity event at two high-profile retail outlets.

    Not content with that, The Silicon Valley Linux Users Group Launches Windows 98...on a rocket.

    The UK Linux Developers' Conference is held in Manchester (basic web page here).

    Rumors of a merger between Caldera and Red Hat circulate. It hasn't happened yet...

    The desktop wars rage as KDE and GNOME advocates hurl flames at each other. Linus gets in on the act, saying that KDE is OK with him. Those who are feeling nostalgic can head over to this Slashdot discussion just to see how much fun it really was.

    In this context, KDE 1.0 is released. The first stable release of the K Desktop Environment proves popular, despite the complaints from those who do not like the licensing of the Qt library.

    NC World magazine shuts down with Nicholas Petreley's devastating criticism of Windows NT. The article, (still available on the net), concludes that Windows NT 5 (now "Windows 2000") can only be an absolute disaster.

    Stable kernel 2.0.35 is released.

    The Internet Operating System Counter goes online and finds, after querying hundreds of thousands of hosts, that Linux has the largest web server market share of any operating system out there. The results are available on the Internet Operating System Counter page.

    LinuxPPC 4.0 is released.

    "IBM, Informix, and Sybase also have no intentions of releasing versions of their databases on Linux, company representatives said." (InfoWorld, July 6)

    [Oracle] Oracle announces support for Linux in this press release. They promise to make a trial version available by the end of 1998, a deadline they beat by months. This, seemingly, was one of the acid tests for the potential of long-term success for Linux; a great deal of attention resulted from this announcement.

    [Informix] Informix announces support for Linux on almost the same day with a press release of their own.

    The SVLUG/Taos "Future of Linux" panel is held featuring Linus and numerous other luminaries. (Writeup here). Among other things, this conference is where Intel first started making serious noises about supporting Linux.

    "When I heard that Steve Ballmer was promoted to the office of president at Microsoft, I couldn't help but wonder if he was being set up to take the fall when Windows NT 5.0 proves to be a catastrophic market failure and Linux supplants Windows NT as the future server operating system of choice."(Nicholas Petreley, InfoWorld, July 27).

    [Forbes cover] Linus appears on the cover of Forbes magazine. A lengthy story presents Linux in a highly positive manner, and brings the system to the attention of many who had never heard of it before. Linux begins to become a household word. (Yes, it was the August 10 issue, but it came out in July).

    The first release of the Mandrake distribution is announced. Mandrake is a version of the Red Hat distribution with international language support and KDE added.

    Stampede distribution 0.86 is released.

    Debian 2.0 is released with this announcement. It is a huge distribution, containing over 1500 packages and requiring at least two CD's to hold it.

    MkLinux distribution DR3 is released, announced thusly.

    Caldera releases Netware for Linux 1.0 (product info here).

    The EiffelBase library is released under an open source license; this library had previously been proprietary. (Info here).

    Red Hat announces (again) that their installation support staff is running behind (again). Their note on the topic asks for patience while they get their act together.

    The Open Source Initiative is formed by Bruce Perens, Eric Raymond, Ian Murdock, and Tim Sailer (Russ Nelson and Chip Salzenberg join the board a month later). Its purpose, among others, is to manage the "open source" trademark.

    Richard Stallman calls for the creation of free documentation for free software in this message to info-gnu.

    [GNOME] GNOME 0.25 is released; this release is codenamed Drooling Macaque.

    The Linux Compatibility Standards project is formed as a cooperative venture between Red Hat and Debian. This project (announcement) was formed out of an increasing frustration with the progress of the Linux Standard Base, which was having trouble finding consensus on its goals.

    Bruce Perens then leaves the Linux Standard Base project and, for a while, dropped out of the free software world entirely.

    Software in the Public Interest (SPI) chooses its new officers, recovering from the departure of most of its board. The new folks are Ian Jackson, Martin Schulze, Dale Scheetz and Nils Lohner; here's their announcement on the subject.

    [LSB] Red Hat puts out a paper on why they do not like the Qt license and why they will not be including KDE anytime soon. The paper is still available on Red Hat's web site.

    The Linux Standards Association appears out of nowhere and claims that they will produce the real standard for Linux systems. The LSA draws almost universal condemnation and slowly fades out of existence, but not before generating a fair amount of press saying that the Linux community is hostile to standards. One good effect of their presence may have been to help drive the Linux Compatibility Standards and Linux Standard Base projects to merge back together and get serious about producing something.

    "Organizations should not consider deployment of NT v.5.0 prior to 2001. We believe organizations are better-served in the interim by evaluating the costs and benefits of using alternative products and not waiting on NT v.5.0 to emerge from 'vaporware' status."(Gartner Group, August 11)

    Red Hat makes the development version of their distribution available as "RawHide".

    "Personally, I think open-source software needs a grown-up to step in and lead it without all this petty bickering."(Nicholas Petreley, InfoWorld, August 24).

    Michael McLagan, a founder of the LSA, challenges the validity of the Linux trademark. Linux International responded with a bit of lawyer action, causing the withdrawal of the challenge and the insertion of trademark ® symbols on the (now defunct) LSA web site.

    Kernel 2.1.115 is released; Linus calls a code freeze, for real, this time. Sort of.

    The Linux Internet Server Administration Guide project starts up with a page at lisa.8304.ch.

    Linux Magazine France debuts as "the" French print magazine on Linux (information here).

    Stackguard/Immunix 5.1 is released. StackGuard is actually a version of gcc modified to protect against stack overrun attacks; Immunix is a version of the Red Hat distribution built with this compiler.

    Microsoft's Steve Ballmer admits that they are "worried" about free software and suggests that some of the NT source code may be made available to developers.

    [SuSE] SuSE 5.3 (English version) is released.

    [Caldera] Caldera splits into two separate companies. "Caldera Systems," under Ransom Love, now handles the Linux business, while "Caldera Thin Clients" does the embedded systems. (Press release here).

    "The Linux community, a temporary, self-managed gathering of diverse individuals engaged in a common task, is a model for a new kind of business organization that could form the basis for a new kind of economy."(Harvard Business Review, September)

    SuSE stops international shipments of their 5.3 release after installation problems turn up for a small percentage of users.

    [UDI] The Uniform Driver Interface (UDI) project bursts on the Linux scene with a suggestion that maybe Linux developers would like to produce lots of drivers for the UDI interface. A free reference implementation for Linux is promised, but enthusiasm among the Linux community seems low.

    SuSE announces their "Office Suite 99" product, which is a bundling of ApplixWare, KDE, and other good stuff. This product gets a fair amount of attention as possible competition to Microsoft on the desktop.

    [DB2] IBM announces support for DB2 under Linux. (Press release here).

    [Sybase] Sybase announces support for linux (Information here). Sybase makes their database available for free download directly from the distribution vendors. With this announcement, Linux has an essentially complete portfolio of database products.

    Dell has been selling Linux-installed systems to large customers for some time reports Inter@ctive Week. This comes as a surprise to "small" customers who have been trying to get Dell to sell them Linux-installed (or at least non-Windows) machines.

    Neomagic allows the source for the driver for their video hardware to be released to the XFree86 project and freely distributed. This driver, developed by Precision Insight under the sponsorship of Red Hat, had previously been available in binary format only.

    The Open Group backs down and releases X11R6.4 under an open source license, thus ending a sad chapter in the history of free software. It is also rumored that TOG has little, if any development staff working on X at this point, meaning that it may not matter much which license they use.

    Microsoft lists Linux as a competitive threat in its annual SEC (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission) filing. Speculation abounds that their real purpose is to affect the upcoming antitrust trial.

    [CLUE] Canadian Linux Users hold a nationwide Installfest with great success. Summaries, pictures, etc. can be found on the Installfest pages.

    Intel and Netscape (and two venture capital firms) announce minority [Intel] investments in Red Hat Software. The money is to be used to build an "enterprise support division" within Red Hat. An unbelievable amount of press is generated by this event, which is seen as a big-business endorsement of Linux.

    Intel joins Linux International.

    Net pioneer Jonathan Postel dies, depriving the world of a much-needed leader in the middle of the domain name debate.

    The International Kernel Patch is introduced, providing cryptographic capabilities in a way that does not run afoul of obnoxious national crypto export laws.

    GNOME 0.30 is released; LWN published a review of this release.

    Linuxpower.org hits the web. This site has since become a good source of Linux articles and tutorials.

    [eCos] Cygnus releases a real-time embedded operating system (eCos) under an open source license. (Press release here).

    Red Hat finds some security problems in CDE and drops it immediately as a supported product. The note they send out makes a big thing of the fact that CDE is not open source software, and thus not easily fixable.

    Caldera 1.3 is released. This version includes Sybase, KDE, and StarOffice 4.0, but sticks with libc5. Caldera also announces Linux administration training courses.

    "Gateway Inc., which has been doing certification tests with Linux for six months, most likely will install Linux across its enterprise server line next year.... Red Hat's Young expects six of the top 10 PC server makers to offer Linux on their machines by next March."(PC Week, October 5).

    [LinuxToday] LinuxToday hits the web providing another source of constantly updated Linux news. This is the first of a number of new Linux-related web publications that start up over the next month.

    Tensions explode on linux-kernel after Linus drops a few too many patches. Linus walks out in a huff and takes a vacation for a bit. Things return to normal, of course, but some people get talking. It becomes clear once again that the Linux kernel is getting to be too big for one person to keep on top of. Some ways of reducing the load on Linus are discussed, but nothing is really resolved.

    The "bootX" utility is released, and makes life much easier for PowerPC users.

    "For the moment, however, the company from Redmond, Washington, seems almost grateful for the rising profile of Linux, seeing it as an easy way of demonstrating that Windows is not a monopoly, ahead of its antitrust trial, scheduled to begin on October 15th. That may be short-sighted. In the long run, Linux and other open-source programs could cause Mr Gates much grief."(The Economist, October 3)

    Oracle8 for Linux becomes available for downloading; at 142 MB it is not something to be done lightly.

    AFUL sponsors a French nationwide installation party, the reports indicate that it was highly successful.

    Microsoft presents Linux as evidence that it does not hold a monopoly in operating systems; their release also claims that Linux was developed by "a single individual."

    Larry Wall wins the first annual Free Software Foundation award. Larry, of course, is the developer of Perl and lots of other good stuff.

    Debian decides to drop KDE from their distribution; their explanation cites worries about licensing issues.

    Novell announces that they will port NDS to Linux in cooperation with Caldera.

    [Allaire] Allaire announces that they will support Linux with "a future version" of their popular "Cold Fusion" product. (Press release here). This, evidently, is a product that quite a few people have been waiting for.

    [Compaq] Compaq is reported to be ready to support VARs installing Linux on their hardware, though it does not plan to sell Linux-installed systems directly. [LinuxWorld]

    LinuxWorld goes online, signalling the arrival of the mainstream trade press. LinuxWorld is edited by Nicholas Petreley, a long time supporter of Linux in the trade press.

    Microsoft publishes an anti-Linux "open letter" in France in what was seen by some as a beta-test of a wider FUD strategy. The letter (in French) (or translated to English) went after Linux on several fronts, and was widely and easily refuted. The definitive refutation was probably this response from AFUL (also available in English).

    Debian 2.1 goes into feature freeze.

    France Telecom invests in Cobalt Networks.

    The Mexican ScholarNet project is announced; this project will install Linux-based computer labs in 140,000 schools. (LWN coverage here). The project will be using GNOME heavily, and expects to contribute to GNOME development.

    "What I saw at the Linux Showcase was enthusiasm, the likes of which I haven't seen in the PC industry for a long time. Sure, some of it was from guys in ponytails and T-shirts, but it was also from guys in suits. Academics and scientists, but also businessmen."(PC Week, October 26).

    The Atlanta Linux Showcase was a big success. (LWN coverage here).

    Corel announces that Word Perfect 8 for Linux will be downloadable for Free for "personal use." They also announce a partnership with Red Hat to supply Linux for the Netwinder. [WineHQ]

    Corel also commits to helping the WINE development effort, a major boost for this long-awaited project. (Note from Corel here).

    [PHT] Pacific HiTech announces that they will bring TurboLinux to the U.S. market. They have long claimed to be the most popular distribution in Japan, and think it's time to head into other pastures. (Press release here).

    Www.alphalinux.org goes live, providing a single site for Alpha-related information for the first time.

    [AFUL] AFUL signs an agreement with the French Ministry of Education to support the deployment of free software in French schools. (Information (in French) here).

    Kernel hacker David Miller gets married (pictures here).

    Two internal Microsoft memos on Linux and open source software are leaked to Eric Raymond; he promptly marks them up and makes them [ExtremeLinux] public. The memos acknowledge frankly the strengths of Linux and the sort of threat that it poses to Microsoft, and suggests some possible responses. The furor in the press was just as large as one might expect. (Eric's Halloween page has the memos, links to press coverage, and translations into a number of languages).

    Extreme Linux makes a splash at Supercomputing '98, as witnessed by this list of events at the conference.

    Linux has a high profile at COMDEX, though it was not the center of the show as some pundits had expected.

    The "Eddie" software suite is released under an open source license; Eddie is a set of applications designed to help build high-availability clusters.

    The proprietary I2O bus specification is opened up, so that Linux support can be implemented. One of the big nondisclosure threats to Linux is thus removed. (Press release here).

    Red Hat 5.2 is released. This is supposed to be the last, stablest 5.x release before 6.0, which will contain the 2.2 kernel.

    LinuxPPC 5.0 is announced; the actual release is set for January 5, 1999. (Info here). [Ext2]

    Ext2 hits the net as another monthly Linux magazine.

    Informix and Apropos deploy Linux machines in over 100 Jay Jacobs clothing stores. (Press release here). Linux has truly arrived in the mainstream corporate world.

    Digital Creations releases Principia under an open source license; Principia is eventually rolled together with Bobo and Aqueduct to become Zope. An interesting angle on this release is that it was recommended by Digital Creations' venture capital investor (LWN coverage here).

    The Silicon Valley Tea Party celebrates the opening of the Microsoft campus there. (Writeup here). [StarDivision]

    StarOffice 5 for Linux is released, freely downloadable for personal use. (Information here).

    Troll Tech announces that version 2.0 of the Qt library will be released under an open source license. This license does not satisfy everyone, since it leaves Troll Tech in a special position and requires that modifications be distributed as patches. As a result, though most acknowledge that the QPL is an "open source" license, the desktop wars fail to end.

    Stable kernel 2.0.36 is released. (Linus's announcement here, release notes here).

    OpenBIOS 0.0.1 is released (announcement here).

    Slackware distribution 3.6 is released

    Red Hat and SuSE both announce support programs at COMDEX. Both are aiming at the big-ticket "enterprise support" market. (SuSE's announcement here, and Red Hat's here).

    Netscape buys the "NewHoo" web directory, and promises to make its database available.

    Sunsite.unc.edu transforms into MetaLab.unc.edu to better reflect its purpose and to get away from Sun's trademark. It remains one of the primary Linux repositories and the home of the Linux Documentation Project.

    The CLOWN project creates a 550-node cluster, aiming for a spot in the record books (Coverage here).

    A fight erupts over the ownership of the "open source" trademark. Both Eric Raymond, in the form of the Open Source Initiative, and Software in the Public Interest claim to own the trademark. SPI has called for a "public comment" period on who should control the trademark; that period remains open as this is written.

    [BSDI] BSDI announces the ability to run Linux binaries, giving users of Linux applications "a reliable, commercially supported operating system to run them on." The implication, of course, is that such a platform had not previously been available. The really interesting point, though, is that Linux now has enough applications to make other OS vendors envious.

    Linus and Tove are guests of honor at Finland's Independence Day celebration. They get to meet the President and are voted "the most interesting couple" at the event. (Coverage here, click on "��nestys" for pictures).

    Red Hat hacker (and RPM culprit) Eric Troan gets married, no pictures (yet) available.

    The Linux Kernel Archive Mirror System is established to better get new kernels out to the world. (Mirror page here).

    The Linux Kernel History is published due to the efforts of Riley Williams and others. An almost complete reconstruction of all the released Linux kernels has been done. (Kernel history page here).

    [Mandrake] [Gecko]

    Mandrake distribution 5.2 is released.

    Netscape's "Gecko" rendering engine is released. Gecko is the first high-profile product out of the Netscape/Mozilla open source development effort; it is a leaner, meaner, faster, more standards-conformant web page layout engine. (Press release here).

    [YellowDog]

    The "Yellow Dog Linux" distribution for the PowerPC is announced. (Home page here).

    Corel announces a partnership with the KDE development team which will provide the KDE interface for the Netwinder. (Press release here).

    IBM releases version 3.5 of the AFS filesystem for Linux (press release here). (An earlier version of AFS had been available before 1998, see the Linux-AFS FAQ for more).

    Electric Lichen announces "Die Linuxbierwanderung" - the Linux Beer Hike, a Linux-training, Alps-walking, beer-drinking adventure in Bavaria next August. (Information here).

    GNOME 1.0 enters code freeze and 0.99 betas are released.

    Compaq releases a Linux driver for its PCI RAID controller, and it is under the GPL. (Press release here).

    LibGGI 2.0 (beta) released (Announcement here).

    IBM releases some software goodies under an open source license, including the Jikes Java compiler and Secure Mailer. They also put out the beta version of DB2 for free download. [Sun]

    Sun opens up the Java license. It's still not an open source license, but things are headed in the right direction.

    Sun announces support for Linux on UltraSparc systems

    "The question is how to do it without exposing IBM and its partners," says one source familiar with IBM's plans. "With a general public license, there are some exposures with liability and how open are the patents if you modify the code. The best way to solve this is by cleaning up the license."(Sm@rt Reseller, December 18).

    Silicon Graphics joins Linux International and also announces support for Samba on their systems.

    KDE 1.1 goes into code freeze and beta releases are made available.

    IBM is said to be considering becoming a support provider for Linux according to some reports. They are held back by fears about patent and liability issues.

    The first public beta of SuSE 6.0 is released (announcement here).

    Reports say that Apple will start selling Power Macintoshes with Linux installed. [Corel]

    WordPerfect 8 becomes available for download; it proves to be popular. (Information here).

    The "LinuxPPC on the iMac HOWTO" is released, allowing users to get Linux on those stylish blue boxes. (HOWTO here).

    The first pre-2.2 kernel is released.

    A report from IDC says that Linux shipments rose by more than 200% in 1998, and its market share rose by more than 150%. Linux has a 17% market share, and a growth rate unmatched by any other system on the market.

    Eklektix, Inc. Linux powered! Copyright © 1998 Eklektix, Inc., all rights reservedLinux ® is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds


    PowerShell Core's march ahead gives pause for IT admins | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Microsoft's roadmap plans for PowerShell indicate the Windows version won't be along for the ride.

    A production version of Microsoft's open source PowerShell automation and configuration management tool, PowerShell Core 6.0, will arrive by the end of 2017, Joey Aiello, program manager at Microsoft, wrote in a blog post last month. Microsoft will continue to support Windows PowerShell 5.1, but only to supply critical fixes, with no expectation for big feature updates or lower-priority fixes.  

    In short, PowerShell users who want function upgrades must switch from Windows PowerShell to PowerShell Core, even though it's missing some features, such as PowerShell Workflow. And with few details on an expiration date, some wonder if this is the end of the road for Windows PowerShell.

    "Microsoft specifically said PowerShell Core is not going to replace Windows PowerShell -- yet," said Wes Miller, research analyst at Directions on Microsoft. "PowerShell Core is a separate effort, and Microsoft will be working to shore it up. In the meantime, Windows PowerShell stays and keeps working the way we expect it to."

    Open source switch brings seismic shifts

    In August 2016, Microsoft open-sourced PowerShell -- its venerable automation and configuration management tool -- and made it available on Linux and macOS; though, the company reaffirmed its commitment to Windows at the same time. The move stunned many longtime Microsoft observers, who witnessed PowerShell's debut as a curiosity in 2006 then blossom into an integral management tool for Windows Server, Microsoft Azure and the Office 365 productivity platform. 

    Jeffrey Snover, technical fellow at Microsoft, built PowerShell to bring Unix command-line functionality to Windows, but with key enhancements. Instead of unstructured text, PowerShell works with objects and uses a series of commands called cmdlets to build scripts that handle various administrative jobs.

    "PowerShell represents Snover's vision for what a better Linux shell would look like. He just happened to implement it on Windows first because he worked for Microsoft," said Don Jones, a PowerShell expert and president of PowerShell.org.

    Microsoft has recently made a number of unpopular moves in the server space, including a switch to the rollup servicing model, cancelled Server Management Tools service in Azure and reduced feature set in Windows Server 2016's Nano Server. But administrators who rely on Windows PowerShell have no cause for concern.

    "[Windows PowerShell] still has a ton of capabilities that PowerShell Core doesn't have -- might never have -- simply because the need to manage Exchange Server is not something you would ever need on Linux," Jones said. "I think Windows PowerShell still has a strong life."

    Why the cloud paved the way for PowerShell Core

    At a recent PowerShell User Group meeting in Boston, Snover said Windows PowerShell achieved its purpose as a complete Windows scripting tool with the 5.1 release. Administrators use it to manage most devices in the data center because it's widely supported by Microsoft's partners.

    "If you look at the on-premises data center infrastructure -- the traditional server, storage array, network switch, virtualization infrastructure -- PowerShell is the lingua franca for that space," said Paul Delory, research director at Gartner.

    As virtualization matured and the use of monolithic servers began to fade, IT departments maximized their server hardware investment to run multiple workloads -- some with a relatively short lifecycle -- and they used PowerShell scripts to handle much of the tedious deployment work.

    "You can configure one server with a GUI, but if you're building 50 servers -- or you want servers to be spun up and spun down on demand -- this is something that has to be automated," Delory said.

    It's no coincidence that work on PowerShell ramped up as Microsoft expanded the Azure cloud platform. The company uses PowerShell extensively to manage its cloud and developed newer features such as classes and Desired State Configuration to automate administrative work. The forthcoming Azure Stack appliance contains more than 250,000 lines of PowerShell code to deploy, maintain and secure the system.

    "Azure runs a ton of Linux workloads. The ability to run PowerShell inside all the guest operating systems is powerful from the Azure management perspective," Jones said.

    We want PowerShell to be the connector of the hybrid cloud. Jeffrey Snovertechnical fellow at Microsoft

    With a change in focus to PowerShell Core, Microsoft combined its PowerShell team with its Azure Automation and Operations Management Suite team to devote more personnel to the cross-platform project and other areas that PowerShell touches, such as Azure and various applications and services. Microsoft's goal is to build a comprehensive management platform for users on different operating systems to control their entire infrastructure.

    "We want PowerShell to be the connector of the hybrid cloud," Snover said. "We want to be able to use PowerShell from any client to manage any server running in any cloud, or on premises using any hypervisor, storage stack and networking stack."

    Suspicions linger around the 'new' Microsoft

    Microsoft surprised many IT veterans with a stream of other open-source-friendly disclosures in 2016. The company discussed plans for a Linux version of its SQL Server database application, it added the Linux Subsystem for Windows to Windows 10 and it joined the Linux Foundation at the Platinum level. But gradual changes to Linux, such as exposing more services through APIs and returning structured objects, have brought it closer to how Windows operates, which might weaken resistance to PowerShell Core.

    "As more and more of the Linux world produces APIs and structured documents, PowerShell becomes a stronger shell for them," Snover said.

    But many in the open source community can't embrace Microsoft's about-face from a proprietary software vendor to a company that writes blogs entitled "Microsoft loves Linux."

    "It's a bit of a paradigm shift, but at the same time, it's just Microsoft trying make this more about its services in the cloud and its management infrastructure down below. Is it going to be enough to win over everybody who's still scared of Microsoft? Absolutely not," Miller said.



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