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Secrets of Lost Empires

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query: in the NOVA about Stonehenge, the A-frame you made had the ropes that the volunteers pull better than the ropes related to the rock, and within the NOVA concerning the obelisk, you had the ropes at the same level. wouldn't or not it's less demanding in case you had the A-frame like in the NOVA about Stonehenge? ~Justin

answer: sure, it will. it's one of the most classes they realized out of both these operations. If the A-body had been higher, and in fact however the pullers in the obelisk operation had been greater, they may have gotten greater carry out of the pole. as it was within the obelisk operation, the pole wasn't getting an awful lot raise at all, it was really probably pulling the obelisk down into the turning groove.

question: Will or not it's viable to listen to a discussion of the obelisk containing the code of Hammurabi? Is the obelisk containing the code of Hammurabi nonetheless in existence? ~J.T.

answer: The code of Hammurabi is on a a whole lot smaller obelisk. this is no longer my enviornment of distinctiveness, but it surely's not what they raised in any amount. It carries cuneiform text.

query: Would the Egyptians have used elephant power to elevate the obelisk? They had been amazing builders and had a fine figuring out of mechanics. It seems to me that elephants can be cheaper and less challenging than slaves, as well as pound per pound a great deal greater powerful than guys. ~Marshall

answer: No, the proof is that elephants did not exist in Egypt after the late Dynastic period or into the Dynastic length, say after 2900 B.C. in order that they have been never typical, besides the fact that children they may additionally have been introduced in via pharaohs like Thomoses III. He also created a zoo within the Karnak temple. Elephants had been on no account general in Egypt like they're in India today, so that they were never part of the development. it's the case that cows have been used and they do have proof of that, however in relocating something as large because the obelisk it became most doubtless individuals power.

question: What changed into the widespread attitude of the 200 men who were working on website, the regular man's attitude to this task, if you will? ~James

reply: neatly, the attitude of the 200 guys engaged on their web page changed into considered one of awesome enthusiasm. They were truly into this operation. There turned into a true team spirit. I don't know if you can note it within the movie, however when the obelisk was efficiently tipped and then slid down right into a turning groove, the guys from Luxor, who are primarily around the obelisk itself, started chanting "Luxor, Luxor, Luxor!" And all the guys from Aswan, who have been often the pullers, begun chanting "Aswan, Aswan, Aswan!" So there changed into a true esprit de corps, a true camaraderie among the group. It become just about like an outstanding sports experience where that they had won a championship.

question: What was the time duration you had to elevate the obelisk? ~Grayson

answer: neatly, I suppose all advised, the whole creation was about three weeks. So an outstanding week of that was taken up with preparations of a lot of varieties. To lift the obelisk itself, they probably had two weeks. And so it became a really brief time duration indeed. it's why they believe with more time, they doubtless would have efficiently gotten it up, but lamentably, contemporary production schedules do not fit historical pharaohs' schedules.

query: Why now not use a pulley on degree floor to profit a mechanical skills for the pullers? ~Travis

answer: neatly, they frequently get questions of why they don't use pulleys in pyramid building or obelisk raising, and one very important piece of suggestions right here was given by Roger Hopkins on the construction. He said a pulley is barely pretty much as good as a wheel is as good as its axle. In different words, they failed to have iron or metal at this length, and for a pulley in fact to work, you want a really effective axle. A pulley is basically a wheel. For wood pulleys or quite a lot of different forms of pulleys it just didn't work. They doubtless had some thing like the pulley as early because the core Kingdom, a few hundred years before the new Kingdom, however it become now not as effective because it necessary to be if they made it out of steel or iron.

question: Why now not anchor the base in the groove stone with a team pulling within the contrary course to the carry? ~Kevin

reply: neatly, if I remember the question correctly, here's almost what Martin Isler had predicted, that you simply really bring the obelisk up to the turning groove and you park it in the turning groove, after which you have got guys pulling it to an upright position after it be been leveled excessive ample so the pull has some impact. it's one of the vital two fundamental concepts for a way you lift an obelisk. And there are definite problems with that. It worked for Martin Isler's obelisk, which changed into two to 3 lots, but for a 450-ton obelisk, you do not have that a whole lot more room to do levering on the factor end of the obelisk. And as you saw on the film, we've a very good deal of difficulty simply getting a 40-ton obelisk levered excessive ample in order that the pull has some effect. it will were exponentially extra complex for a 450-ton obelisk.

question: Do you believe having extra americans pulling to are attempting to erect the obelisk would have made a difference? ~Andrea

reply: well, I do not consider extra individuals pulling would have made a change, except they had gotten them to an improved platform, the place the pull had greater elevate, or unless they had used their A-frame on a far better platform in order that the ropes would have had more carry. in any other case, I believe what became going on in their circumstance is that the pullers have been conveniently pulling the obelisk down towards the obelisk as opposed to getting their lift out of the pull.

query: have you ever regarded a rising street mattress stage on the lever aspect of the obelisk, additionally decreasing the top of the A-frame and extending ropes, because the pharaohs had many more than 200 inclined participants? ~Pete

answer: neatly, it definitely is true that they had greater willing or unwilling members than 200. They may have had as many contributors as they wanted. The issue is, the total area of operation is limited by using the house this is there in front of the exquisite temple pylons or gateways, like in front of the Luxor temple. however any variety of configurations may also be tried, it simply has to fit in the house purchasable, and that comprises the variety of pullers. for example, in the Luxor temple, where Ramses raised two of the biggest obelisks of all instances, and only 1 is still nowadays, it isn't that far from the temple to the river. And they understand that the men had been pulling on the river facet since the turning groove is on the land side. so you've obtained to take all these different factors into consideration, and they set boundaries for the way many guys, the length of the roadway, and therefore, the top of the roadway and so forth.

question: how many complete obelisks are there in existence now? have been they reduce from the identical category of stone? Is there any indication about who the sculptors have been? ~Jeunesse

reply: smartly, I with no trouble don't know off the accurate of my head what the overall variety of complete obelisks may be in Egypt nowadays, although that may be standard in the book, "Obelisks, the Skyscrapers of historic Egypt." i'm bound they could appear it up. The obelisks are primarily of purple granite. however there are a few obelisks from different sorts of stone. There are a number of limestone ones, sandstone ones, and some quartzite obelisks. The makers of the obelisks, this is the overseers in can charge and the craftsmen, not ever signed their work, and this turned into always the case in ancient Egypt, that the first-class craftsmen, whatever the masterpiece can be, together with a masterpiece statue of a pharaoh, they not ever signed their work. It turned into now not so an awful lot the creation of anyone of a particular artist, it turned into extra of divine object that become created on behalf of this divine king. it is the case that there are simplest about four or five obelisks nonetheless standing in Egypt of their fashioned websites.

question: You need to raise the obelisk on a ramp to a peak the place the center of gravity is at its final peak, then comfy a body at the center of gravity, which can be used to pivot the obelisk, which is now balanced at its middle of gravity to a vertical position. ~Richard

reply: well, it's a good idea. I suppose what the questioner is suggesting is that the frame be truly on the obelisk facet of the erection pit rather than the A-frame that they placed on the pulling facet of the erection pit. Now, in case you had some kind of a frame or a windblast variety of tying off of the obelisk, like Martin Isler had, you then may simply readily pivot it, you be aware of. That may work. i would be drawn to the details of how the body would be composed. Would or not it's timber? How would the turning be effected? once more, they do not have pulleys, they will not have cogs, they do not need gears. So it's a fascinating advice, they need more details.

query: How distinctive changed into the scale of the pyramid constructing from the dimensions of the obelisk quarrying and elevating? ~Mark

reply: the scale of pyramid building is totally diverse than that of obelisk elevating, exceptionally if you're speakme in regards to the early duration of pyramid constructing, the first three or 4 generations. this is when they constructed the tremendous pyramids. That became a humongous assignment. It turned into constructing a geological constitution with human power, you know, some thing on the size of a small mountain. The obelisk is more of a single object and a single experience. The obelisk is no less daring, because you have this large piece of stone, a superb piece of stone, and of course, in case you've already put the ornament on and in the erection effort the total component breaks, or not it's a lot of labor wasted. And so or not it's a really daring type of operation. Whereas the pyramid of direction is many small operations, many blocks over the enhanced a part of probably a generation. The obelisk is a single daring feat of engineering.

query: do not you feel that they might have come up alongside of the river with a view to allow the pullers have the room to move it after which do the gap beneath the stones aiding it through three stones or so? You may then construct a ship or many boats under the stone and let it float out into the river and reverse operation into the conclusion. ~Zoe

answer: Intuitively they all consider that some variety of ballast and boat operation ought to had been thinking in both loading the obelisk and unloading it. it is, the place you utilize water, water in the hunt for its personal stage. for example, Roger's idea, which didn't get very well illustrated in the movie on account of his issues together with his little mannequin sinking and so on, his concept became if you, for example, had a slipway and also you brought the boat loaded with the obelisk into the slipway and the obelisk changed into loaded on these cross-beams, you might carry the boat in, put ballast on the boat in order that you sink the boat down, the pass-beams capture on the perimeters of the slipway and, for this reason, you have got off-loaded the boat. You effectively pull the boat out from underneath the obelisk. Roger wanted the obelisk to be loaded in a similar operation, but reversed, where you take steadiness lost off the boat, the boat floats up on the water until it lifts up on the obelisk on his go-pole. in the event you truly are attempting these items, there are a lot of difficulties, and the boat boondoggle is whatever they are looking to re-investigate when they go returned to are attempting to do an obelisk.

question: Is there any symbolism involved with the form of the obelisk? ~Mary

answer: well, there's a symbolism thinking in the form of the obelisk. It doubtless symbolizes the rays or shaft of the daylight coming down. it's entertaining, on the excellent of the hatchet's obelisk, she shows herself, Themoses III, giving gifts up. there's the inscription that the higher a part of her obelisks have been gilded with electrum, a combination of silver and gold. So in fact, what you had is the top of the obelisk, where she shows herself within the company of the gods, gilded with blazing medal, so it become in fact like the solar mirrored off this electrum. So the symbolism of course is a shaft of mild that reaches up to the place any pharaoh is co-mingling with the divine beings. there is probably additionally... or not it's a bit bit greater convoluted and indirect, but there is also more a phallic statement relating to the solar God Othom.

query: instead of the usage of pullers to need to work over their heads, why don't you utilize a strategy referred to as a Spanish Windlass? The rope is anchored at some mighty fixed object. by way of then twisting a looped rope, a major pulling drive can be utilized over the A-frame by means of just a few americans. ~Bernard

reply: neatly, Bernard, they did definitely use a Spanish Windlass in Martin Isler's method, now not so a whole lot to pull the stone horizontally into an upright place, but if you seem carefully at Martin Isler's place within the movie, he had Spanish Windlasses going off to either aspect of the obelisk, the place the rope turned into twisted after it, became tied around the butt conclusion of the obelisk, the place it became parked in the turning groove. Isler used this to manage the flow of the obelisk from left to right, that's, in order that it might not move to both facet because it changed into being lifted. so that, as it turned into being lifted, it turned into held firmly in place right on its pedestal, correct with one part right within the turning groove. to use a Spanish Windlass really to movement the obelisk horizontally or to raise it upright is an enchanting recommendation. however implies a really lengthy, a extremely lengthy size of rope, lots of twisting, and a few kind of a platform where all this may also be carried out.

question: How did you calculate the variety of guys essential to man the ropes? ~supply

reply: You comprehend, I can not reply that principally, as a result of truly they left it up to Ali el-Gasab. Others have requested why they failed to use equations—how many guys have been mandatory to lift the obelisk and the like? Ali, who isn't any longer with us in this world as a result of he handed away this final year, however Ali become literate, and he had worked with heavy monuments all his lifestyles, at least 40 years. He knew how to determine how many guys he essential, and he had a particular manner of calculating how many pullers have been required and how many had been required on the obelisk-facet of the erection pit. simply precisely what his calculations have been, I can't inform you, however they know that Ali became calculating.

query: Why have been there no ladies concerned? ~Kathy

answer: well, basically, there have been ladies involved. Cheryl Haldane, who turned into within the film, is an archaeologist from Texas A&M, and that i'm not sure if the question is apart from Cheryl Haldane, why there have been no ladies thinking in their construction, or why there have been no girls involved in historical Egypt? those are two distinct questions of path.

question: Why no longer use a edition on hydraulics? If the ropes were fastened down, is rarely it possible to wet them, tighten them, let them dry and shorten, place strong rock beneath the a little bit lifted obelisk and repeat? after all, it's the desert. ~John

reply: neatly, you understand, tricks like that, wetted ropes, dry ropes etc, i would not put it past the historic Egyptians to have used any type of method comparable to John suggests. It turned into fantastic to us to peer how Ali el-Gasab's men tried anything else and everything to get that obelisk to stream, get it to tip and then get it upright. They tried rollers, they greased the rollers. It was very through crook or by way of hook. As I spoke of previous, Ali did a good deal calculating, what number of men he obligatory. As you noticed in the movie, he made a scale model of it, once the operation turned into under method, they just attacked with a ferocity and with a spirit that basically has astounded us all. And anything and every little thing went at that factor. Now, if wetting the ropes, enabling them to dry and wetting them once more labored, they might have used it, any trick they may have used to get the job carried out.

query: The procedure so far appears suitable, however, I could imply the use of bushes braces anchored to the ground and raise the obelisk from the backside as they do within the "barn elevating" formulation. ~Len

reply: it really is a very exciting suggestion. now not being Ali el-Gasab and not being the engineer on the mission, it sounds first rate to me. i'd like to comprehend extra particulars.

question: Did you try the counterweight theory that was counseled by means of the owner of the quarry? ~Jeff

reply: No, they did not are attempting the counterweight theory that become cautioned through Hamada, the proprietor of the quarry. It looked decent. It looked first rate in his model. The difficulty with counterweight strategies in obelisk elevating or pyramid elevating is you must deal with the load it truly is commensurate with the obelisk or with the heavy stone blocks in pyramid constructing, and or not it's well-nigh as even though you might be doubling your operation, because one way or the other you must get the counterweight means up there, too, in Hamada's system, in a peak in its personal sandbox, the place then, if you liberate the sand, the counterweight sinks and also you release the obelisk. So in counterweight, the methods for lifting pyramid stones or obelisks, you must deal with the problems of getting the counterweight itself to a major peak so that it will possibly then sink and raise it to the peak that you need, carry and sink the burden that you just wish to raise. In each pyramid constructing and obelisks, you're form of faced with the equal problems, raising the original weights itself.

question: Why failed to laborers stand on the levers when they grew to become too excessive to attain with a purpose to make the most of their weight to raise the downward force on the lever? ~Peter

answer: Peter, it is a very exciting commentary, and that i've viewed guys try this. I've seen them climb up on to those heavy levers, stand on them. however they had been using levers the dimension of railroad ties, however might be twice as long. They have been the same thickness as a railroad tie, and it wasn't just the proven fact that the levers had been getting too high for the men to grab grasp of, it was also that probably six inches from their butt conclusion, the levers are snapping like toothpicks. And here's a extremely sobering observation, as a result of their obelisk is forty lots. And yet, given the shape of obelisks, a 400-ton obelisk isn't going to give you that a good deal extra space to lever, and also you're not going to be able to use levers which are that lots greater, as a result of guys cannot get ahold of them. So if their railroad tie-sized levers are snapping like toothpicks on a forty-ton obelisk on its point end, what is going on to occur on a 450-ton obelisk, however the men were standing on them? Of route it be not—it's sort of a precarious place to get up on a lever. notwithstanding they were standing on them, levering starts off to look a little bit insufficient to the job of the very large obelisks that they understand were successfully erected with the aid of the ancient Egyptians.

query: What other limitations did you and your colleagues face, now not including the problems of transporting and checking out? ~Aaron

answer: it really is a fine question. The film makes a speciality of transporting and raising, and primarily on raising. probably the most large issues they confronted, which should were an issue faced by each ancient overseer, became finding a large satisfactory patch of granite the place they might quarry an obelisk, even with contemporary capacity, with out there being fissures and cracks in it. It became a tough job simply to find a big adequate patch of uniform granite that they might take out a forty-ton obelisk. feel how much they have to have searched and completed trial trenches and probes to find a fine patch of granite the place they could get a four hundred, 300-ton obelisk. this is only 1 difficulty. They spent many, many days, basically weeks, looking through the quarries to find a superb patch of granite.

question: would not a collection of A-frames beginning on the suitable of the obelisk and being succeeded by using a taller A-frame, as the first for the job and the like, cement the levers that may well be filling within the area at the back of the obelisk with rock and dust to the aspect at which the core of gravity is over the base and the obelisk was standing through itself? Would this work? ~Lee

reply: smartly, Lee should be an engineer, because Lee has just anticipated what one of the vital engineers they have already consulted have recommended for Obelisk II, that with a collection of A-frames you might be getting a series of poles, almost like for those who lever a heavy weight and also you get purchase with your lever, you get some upward thrust out of the burden, you comfy that upward thrust by way of inserting in rocks beneath it, you then get extra buy, extra leverage and the like. This has already been recommended, a series of A-frames, and it's some of the things they are going to are attempting in Obelisk II.

question: Would it be possible to create a supporting cage-like structure at the bottom of the obelisk made from timber? this would need to be robust satisfactory to face up to an influence into the backside of the pit. as soon as in, with the extra perspective whereas the guys had been pulling, it may well be set on hearth, a wood version of the sand pit. The best problems I see are the velocity of the barn and how a whole lot heat the obelisk could withstand. decent success. ~Sarita

answer: it's an amazingly inventive suggestion. i am no longer bound what would take place in that case. One factor i would simply be aware is that heat will break the floor of granite, and they showed that in the movie, where Roger all started dressing the surface of granite by way of creating a hearth over it, and also you see those big flakes pop off. So it is one element you might must agonize about. You may should fret about the heat developing cracks in the course of the granite as neatly. Cracks are feared via each granite employee. Even their 40-ton obelisk, as they were pulling it out of the quarry, a very hairline crack looked and each worker observed it. Quarry proprietor Hamada went into a panic, and so I do not suppose he'd wish to do anything, including heat, and the differential between heat and bloodless that could cause the granite to crack.

query: It may be more straightforward to slip the obelisk down a concrete ramp to the anchor stone in place of drop it, the use of sand and developing guess work. That method, a short, lightweight wood examine obelisk may be used to work out the proper alignment between the obelisk and anchor stone. It could also be less complicated to create a raised hill in the back of the obelisk so that the A-body would rest above the obelisk. The pullers could be on the down slope of this hill. What do you consider? ~Geoff

reply: smartly, the closing a part of Geoff's suggestion sounds just like the type of thing they have been attempting in a very cursory means on the end of the project with the A-body. And it be a good option. I do believe that the pullers need to be on a ramp it really is excessive satisfactory and the A-frame must be high sufficient that they're getting carry out of the pole, some thing that they have now referred to in other questions.

query: couldn't triangular wedges in alternation—small to significant, with the small making room for the massive—be used from the rear to raise the obelisk? ~Tim

answer: This advice of Tim's is in fact an excellent and intensely insightful advice. after they have been doing "This ancient Pyramid," they discovered that wedges had been probably the most helpful equipment of all. They really recreated historical Egyptian wedges, the place the ancient Egyptians put handles on the wedges. and there's nothing better in case you've gotten a little bit of raise out of a 3-ton block than sticking a wedge in, and you can stick a wedge in underneath to secure your carry, the raise you have gotten out of it when you have a address on it. And also, after they have been moving the obelisk that weighed forty lots, the obelisk turned into so heavy it was actually crushing the reasonably thin rollers that they were the usage of. some of the ways in which the workmen would get some carry out of the obelisk is to get the force up off the rollers to pound in wedges with sledgehammers. Wedges are just fabulous little issues, and it be a pretty good suggestion. I feel or not it's whatever they doubtless used in an advert hoc method, now not to carry the obelisk to its closing peak or to a height the place they may pull it upright, but wedges are very effective little equipment and intensely convenient for loads of lesser operations.

question: Weren't slaves used in Egyptian instances to circulate the obelisks? ~Matt

answer: neatly, have been slaves used? it's the case there turned into slavery in historical Egypt. in general slaves have been home slaves, notwithstanding, in households. The photograph we've from biblical reviews and so on, of masses of slaves doing wonderful labor tasks, is probably now not very accurate. Or the photo they have, as an instance, from the movie "The Ten Commandments," where the hundreds of the Hebrew slaves are raising the obelisks and doing other initiatives is doubtless now not correct. there were certified who had been involved in these operations, nonetheless it is the case that prisoners of warfare may be assigned to working the granite in Aswan. And they do recognize that being despatched to the granite changed into a punishment for a variety of kinds of crimes. When it really comes to elevating the obelisk and pulling it, they likely would not have assigned that operation to slaves. Slaves would greater were thinking within the quarries for shaping the granite, that very hard, pounding work. The genuine elevating of the obelisk, when it was effectively quarried, after it had been efficiently transported to the non secular capital, and after it had been adorned with its hieroglyphs, changed into not at all entrusted to individuals who were enslaved, it became likely entrusted to consultants and worker's who had the equal variety of spirit that their men confirmed from Aswan and Luxor.

question: When are you going back to Egypt to try this once more? ~Becky

answer: well, the plans now call for us being again in Egypt with a further crew down in Aswan in February and March for their 2nd attempt of raising the obelisk, the usage of historic Egyptian tools, concepts and operations.

question: were the pyramids built at across the same time because the obelisk?

reply: No. in reality, the considerable pyramids that are most established in most americans's imaginations were a great 1,200, 1,300 years earlier than the significant obelisk turned into raised. That shows you the way lengthy Egyptian civilization lasted. The pyramids belonged to the historical Kingdom, and the obelisks belong to the new Kingdom. In between Tutankeman and the pyramid of Kufu is greater than 1,200 years.

query: Did your journey trying to raise the obelisk, but failing, offer you any ideas about how to do it more desirable? ~Karl

reply: sure, it gave us many concepts about the way to do it improved. For one aspect, if they had had a much better ramp which is to assert a deeper turning pit, we'd have gotten greater raise from the tipping operation. that's to claim that once they introduced it over the fringe of the ramp and tipped it down into the pit, and then slid it down that one facet of the pit right down to the turning groove, if their ramp had been higher on that aspect they might have gotten extra raise out of the tipping operation. If the ramp had been better on the different side, we'd have gotten greater lift out of the pulling. And if they would used an A frame and the ramp had been higher on the different aspect it would have achieved more raise as smartly.

query: Have any obelisks ever fallen over? ~Mary

answer: Of a collection of obelisks that as soon as stood within the terrific Karnak temple, eight or 9 should have fallen over or had been removed. Engelbach, the British engineer who wrote the most important examine of the unfinished obelisk at Aswan chided the historic Egyptians for not having enhanced foundations below the pedestal on which the obelisk sat and he blamed this for one of the most obelisks having fallen over. apart from obelisks of direction being forcibly removed, just like the one in entrance of the Luxor temple that become the mate to the one which nonetheless exists, an entire number of obelisks need to of fallen over (about eight or 9). or not it's idea that one of the crucial principle explanations they fell turned into earthquakes and never so a lot the dangerous foundations that Engelbach pointed to. They know that there's been at the least one earthquake if now not extra that caused considerable harm in the Karnak temple, not simply to the obelisks however to the gigantic pillars and architrazes.

query: How changed into the bottom facet of the obelisk (attached to the quarry) freed from the granite? ~Angela

reply: the primary question they comprehend the reply to with a good diploma of likelihood because they have spines of—if not obelisks—long granite blocks which have been snapped off. The facts from the quarries is that simply as they channeled around the obelisk comfortably by pounding the granite to create these separation trenches or channels, so additionally they channeled in underneath. That must have been a extremely intricate operation. It became problematic enough for workers to sit within the trench pounding all day as slender as it is (as you noticed in the movie), however to really birth pounding the face of the granite in underneath the obelisk to free it up should have been in reality difficult, however that seems to be what they did. When both sides came close satisfactory so that there's easily a spine of natural rock nonetheless connected, then they got super levers and doubtless levered from one facet to snap the obelisk off that spine. The evidence is that there are spines that exist in the quarries the place they've snapped off blocks after channeling in and below them from both sides.

further Q & As

We feel sorry about that Mark Lehner should not able to reply to any extra questions; he has been referred to as to Egypt to partake in a ceremony celebrating the completion of the conservation of the super Sphinx on the Giza plateau. query: A smaller version of the obelisk had been raised with the aid of draining sand from under it. If there have been stops within the circulation of the obelisk, comparable to poles positioned in layers through the sand, would not that resolve some of the problems in positioning the obelisk on the correct aspect to satisfy the turning groove? ~Stacy

reply: Stacy, you comprehend that could. In all fairness, they didn't do a very reasonable test of the sandbox formula. The sandbox thought become first cautioned via Engelbach, which as you recognize, weighs about 1168 tons. Engelbach's thought changed into now not that it will be a box, but that it might be greater like a funnel. And the bottom of the funnel will be the equal size as the base of the obelisk itself so that the obelisk would have nowhere to head however right down to that base. It would not be able to get askew and stuck adore it did in Roger's sandbox. The aspects of the funnel would have been sloping and smooth, and that i do not know that you would have necessary stops. one of the crucial leading complications with Engelbach's sandbox or sand funnel is that the obelisk would get caught much more than it did in Roger's sandbox. Of direction then, you even have the issue, as Hamada pointed out, of men under the very heavy obelisk, 450 heaps or some thing, taking the sand out. Our sandbox, anyway, within the movie, was no longer a totally authentic look at various of what Engelbach was suggesting.

query: someone lately proposed that the historical Egyptians might have harnessed wind vigor to lift obelisks, using large airfoils or kites. What do you think of that notion? ~Rosemary

answer: I do not believe or not it's very possible that the Egyptians harnessed wind energy to raise obelisks. there is no advice within the historical or archaeological record that they created such contraptions or that they had the expertise that would have been required for aerial lifting contraptions like that—some thing powerful ample to lift something as heavy as 300 or four hundred tons.

question: The equal small canal that turned into built to glide the stone to the web site may be used to fill a large pool it's constructed higher because the water stage rises. Animal epidermis bladders connected to the obelisk would gently float the stone upright. This components would "baptize" the stone in the holy water of the Nile in addition to provide an aqueduct and reservoir for the staff and metropolis. or not it's just a thought but it seems plausible. ~Dustin

reply: It changed into probably beyond the Egyptian's hydraulic technology to have a series of locks that could carry the obelisk on water or simply lift the water itself as high as they crucial to get it to set it upright. Water lifting turned into at all times very confined in ancient Egypt from the prevalent proof. within the ancient Kingdom pyramid age, water lifting become by means of means of shoulder poles with pots slung over the pole. via the 18th dynasty, by the new Kingdom, it's by the point of obelisks they might raise water with some thing called a chaduf which is a massive lever with a water receptacle on one conclusion and a counter weight on the other. via that skill, they lifted water from canals into fields so that they could be perennially flooded. however a gadget of locks like those that circulate ships via awesome canals like the Panama canal or during the barrages in Egypt these days had been likely beyond the potential of the ancient Egyptians. The water displacement would even have to be colossal to go with the flow that obelisk and that is the reason a factor in how they transported it on the boat however to do it with animal hides you'd must have appreciable displacement and it's very unlikely that they had those capacity in order that they did it in that method.

query: How did four hundred a whole lot granite get on to the sled? ~Adam

reply: This question displays a type of operations that they are likely to fail to see once they launch into courses like building pyramids and elevating obelisks, attempting to copy the ancient Egyptians' technology. it is indeed very difficult as they found in "This historical Pyramid" to load a sled with a block of stone weighing many lots. the primary time they tried this they rolled a stone over to the sled and then onto the sled but because it didn't land on the sled on dead core, it really pushed the sled down into the sand and the sled turned into sticking up into the air and the stone of direction was chewing the wood and splintering it. So how you load something like 400 tons or 456 lots, the load of the heaviest obelisks that they know (apart from the unfinished ones) onto the wood sled is an excellent question and it would be wonderful to try to copy that in their subsequent shot at doing an Egyptian obelisk. One thought is you could tie the sled to at least one side of the obelisk, so that the obelisk is firmly lashed to the sled after which you might conveniently turn the complete meeting, sled and obelisk over very carefully and slowly by means of levering. however it must be a delicate operation to do this with so an awful lot weight and not to fully crush and splinter the sled.

question: i'm just curious why an engineer changed into not covered on the erection team. In half-hour I calculated the entire forces and geometries crucial to carry the obelisk the usage of sophomore level engineering competencies. I estimate that with two timber constructions (akin to the one used within the team's remaining ditch attempt) and a platform in a position to supporting 1/four the obelisks weight the obelisk may well be lifted with between one hundred fifty and 300 guys (assuming every could generate a pull equal to his weight). The Egyptians are famous for their fabulous engineering feats. isn't it silly to are attempting to reproduction them without huge knowledge and realizing of the field? ~Dan

answer: Our goal changed into now not to examine how they could raise an obelisk, or even how sophomore-stage engineering math would assist us carry an obelisk, but how the historical Egyptians may have accomplished it. Now it may well be really that that they had engineering and that as a result of they failed to have engineers on the crew they had been ignorant of engineering skills and calculations that the historic Egyptians might have executed. In their subsequent attempt they nevertheless are looking to stick to the project - not of completely replicating an historic Egyptians obelisk project (cause they can't do that without replicating everything of Egyptian society) however they would like to once again try out particular tools, concepts, and operations like loading a sled, just like the tipping operation, like elevating it up on its pedestal. but they are able to have, besides fingers-on know the way, an engineer on the project. So they will all the time be checking that the engineering capabilities they carry to bear when we're checking out a selected tool, method, or operation aren't exceeding the boundaries of what became purchasable to the historical Egyptians.

query: Are there any historical records in any respect, however imprecise or fragmentary, on how obelisks had been raised? ~Antonio

reply: They don't have any manuals for obelisk erection in historic Egypt. And there are not any explicit scenes displaying all the workmen that could were required to raise an obelisk. What they do have are symbolic scenes of the king elevating obelisks, as a result of in a sense all these assembled individuals and all these laborers have been an expression of the king's very own body and might. So in place of showing the entire employees doing it they demonstrate the king doing it after which of direction it be just a symbolic illustration; the king has a rope around the obelisk and he is ritually pulling it up. It looks very convenient of route since the king basically in such scenes is practically as tall or taller than the obelisk that's proven. they have the Ansatasi Papyrus where one scribe chides one other one about his level of skill in deciding a considerable number of sorts of operations, one among which is elevating a massive statue of the king (now not an obelisk), nevertheless it makes some kind of an vague reference to cubicles containing sand which is why those that favor the sandbox formula point to this. however apart from that Papyrus and the symbolic representations, what we're left with is the facts on the ground within the approach of the obelisk bases, the turning grooves, the proof of the unfinished obelisk within the quarry and the proof of the obelisk that remains standing in Egypt from ancient times.

query: Is there any danger that when you have the capacity to tip the obelisk into its upright position that it will topple over the other facet from its momentum? ~Howard

reply: sure. one of the crucial things they didn't be taught from their experiment is whether or not, despite the fact that they had successfully raised that obelisk, it could have stood. after they quarried the obelisk from the quarry using modern capability, it became just a little banana shaped and probably the most things that have to be required for an obelisk to face upright efficaciously and not using a attachment, comfortably standing by itself is that it's plum - this is that the vertical axis of the obelisk be straight and that the center of gravity in that path be pretty established inside the physique of the obelisk in order that the burden is never dispensed to at least one aspect or the different. The other factor is that the vertical axis of the obelisk must be pretty perpendicular (i'd imagine) to the base. Now the base of an obelisk is pretty small. if you have bumps and dimples in the base of the obelisk, or not it's going to make it unsteady. So all these circumstances need to be met and the wonderful query is, how did the ancient Egyptians quarrying the obelisk via potential of channels that they had been pounding out and then pounding it beneath and snapping it off at the backbone, all over all of that how did they achieve an obelisk that met all of those necessities.

query: Did the entire effort that went into building these big monuments, like the pyramids and the obelisks, expend so many components that it turned into damaging to society? ~Jack

answer: No, likely now not. not at all with obelisks. by the time that obelisks have been installation Egyptian society become populous ample and complex sufficient that raising the obelisk and quarrying it and transporting it and then elevating it was definitely probably drawing on a big variety of laborers and materials but no longer so many who it changed into truly a drain on society. Of direction the pyramids are distinct, specially the giant pyramids of the early part of the pyramid age, like the pyramid of Khufu at Giza. it be so big that it have to have drawn on materials nationwide. however a fascinating opportunity is rather than it draining supplies, it basically had a nation-building impact for Egypt because it was a socializing process the place individuals were brought from villages and communities all over the land to the middle the place they noticed this Cecil B. De Mille epic of a whole bunch, probably heaps of americans engaged on this typical project. And the facts they have is that almost all these laborers had been seasonal and they labored for a certain stint, a certain period of time, possibly a month, after which they have been spun off and changed. certainly there were professional laborers who have been there permanently. but to come back into this kind of labor mission, to peer as an alternative of just a few hundred individuals to your village hundreds of people, to be part of a nationwide task, after which to be spun off again and return to your home - it ought to had been a very effective socializing event. And in place of it being detrimental to Egypt as a nation it definitely may also have helped construct Egypt as a nation.

query: It appears like engaged on a undertaking like elevating the obelisk or building a pyramid can be, whereas challenging, very moneymaking. are you able to suppose of any projects today that would generate an identical feeling? ~Mary

answer: You comprehend, it be tough to consider of initiatives today that could have an identical feeling, as a result of society is completely distinct nowadays than it changed into then. one of the vital revealing operations in NOVA's historical technology sequence, I suppose, is the Incan bridge-constructing operation, where the diverse families exit on the hillside and they select grass and they weave their grass into segments of cord, and the diverse families combine their segments or strains of twine into rope, and on the day of building the bridges, the diverse families mix their rope into huge cables that the distinct villages donate to the bridge, in order that the bridge is truly an intertwining or an interweaving of the entire diverse households, households, and villages of that certain way of life. there may be some proof that in ancient time, monuments had been built the identical manner, and that pyramids in historical Egypt had been constructed through the turning out of labor from teams from distinct communities. So once they actually elevate whatever like an obelisk, no longer simplest did you have got the keenness and the excitement that they had from teams from Luxor and an entire different team from Aswan chanting and celebrating, however you had teams from in all places the nation.

query: what's the magnitude of the writing on the aspects of the obelisk? ~Jen

reply: smartly, the writing varies. For probably the most part, it is the names and titles of the kings who raised the obelisk. Kings have 5 distinctive names and quite a few titles, and so this is by using and large what would beautify the sides of the obelisk, as well as photos of these kings giving offerings to the gods. As I observed in an earlier question, the obelisk sort of raised the king's picture up into the heavens, and being gilded with a combination of gold and silver, called Electrum, and that blazing in the solar, the king's image is actually combined with the photographs of the gods up there in the sky as smartly because the King's names, all aglow and glittering in Electrum. Hatshepsut, on her obelisk, added whatever else. She brought the whole story of how she despatched a group out to quarry the obelisk, transported, raised it at the temple of Amman; it really is apart from her story about how she went about raising these monuments.

query: in the event you go lower back, what number of methods will you are attempting? and should you have got the equal amount of time and different constraints as you did closing time? ~Gene

reply: neatly, they don't know for certain yet. We're nevertheless within the procedure of speaking about that. it might be exceptional to are attempting to do a little pondering in order that their attempts to replicate an ancient Egyptian operation aren't constrained by means of a modern film and construction finances and time schedule, in order that they as a minimum give ourselves sufficient time to are trying one or two or three things as completely as feasible. some of the things they might want to try in the future isn't just different ways of elevating the obelisk, they would really like to are trying to construct some type of a ship that might look at various how they may have transported the obelisk down the river of Aswan.

query: Did engaged on this test make you consider in any respect such as you were capable of get inside the minds of the ancient Egyptians? ~David

answer: well, it is a great query. i am now not certain they can get inside the minds of the historical Egyptians, but let me inform you that anything the suggestions could be of popularizing historical know-how by way of trying these replications of equipment, thoughts and operations, something shortcuts they might have to take for a modern, well-known film construction, nothing beats in fact getting your hand on limestone blocks that way, two or three heaps in constructing pyramids. We're definitely getting face to face with the granite in elevating an obelisk. it is some of the genuine values of these productions. within the movie on obelisks, you noticed a bunch of guys down in that trench that in reality described and separated the unfinished obelisk. except you truly get down in that trench with a dolerite pounder that weighs five kilograms, and you just for a few minutes swing it up and down with your arms, you can not admire what human labor basically went into growing the monuments they see all over the place Egypt. They did not get so an awful lot within the minds, but they saw the physical bedrock truth that they needed to deal with—what encouraged them, what gave them their spirit of feat, what gave them the spirit that they noticed within the men from Aswan and Luxor who labored for just three weeks on this undertaking.

query: What do you feel accounts for people's fascination for all things Egyptian, certainly the pyramids? ~Francesca

answer: it really is one of the vital profound and tricky questions that anyone may be asking. I've worked with the monuments of historical Egypt for 25 years now. I've spent years and years with the pyramids, I've lived in Egypt for 13 years straight earlier than coming lower back to the us, and still I don't know the finished reply to that query. there's anything about historic Egypt that has a pull on everyone within the up to date world, no longer just american citizens, the Europeans, japanese, individuals international. quite a few answers that I've tried out and worked to some extent, however are not fully satisfying, include that the Egyptians were outstanding designers. whatever concerning the manner they depicted the man or woman, pyramids, the temples, the obelisks, they had been simply exceptional designers in an architectural sense.

I feel additionally part of the attraction of historical Egypt is that it be so very historic. or not it's probably the most earliest civilizations on their planet. And it's so very huge. every little thing they did of their monuments is massive. The pyramids, the obelisks, the temples, the statues, and they have been in a position to do these very huge things as a result of that they had easy entry to hard and smooth stones, limestone, granite, different forms of stone. and they also might construct these enormous monuments in stone that survived the a while. Whereas different civilizations, just like the Sumerians, in-built mud brick, so they don't see their accomplishments as plenty.

Even in precedent days when the Greeks and Romans came to Egypt, they had been astounded through these skyscrapers. it be as though you walked into ny or some thing for precedent days. nowadays, as civilization races towards some form of a future, we're now not bound what, with such dramatic adjustments over such brief intervals—automobiles, skyscrapers, computers—I consider we're stuffed with lots of anxiousness as to the place we're going. I believe once they look lower back to instances over the horizon, after they believe a little bit lost in their own civilization, there may be anything very attractive about this lost ancient Egyptian civilization. might be we're attempting to find some kind of a solution for what we're going via now. it's hard to understand. there isn't a quick easy answer to that query.

query: were you aware if there are any obelisks in private collections? ~Jon

answer: well, if there are obelisks in deepest collections, I do not believe they're as big as the biggest obelisk that Ramses II made. I do not think there are any obelisks hiding in inner most collections anyplace. Obelisks begun out as very small monuments. one of the crucial oldest obelisks they find out about are about knee-excessive. they are created from limestone and they have been put in front of the tombs of in demand households in the ancient Kingdom, noblemen etc. There may be small obelisks like that that can be in private collections.

question: When did the society that was accountable for constructing the obelisk come to an conclusion and what led to its downfall? ~Maura

reply: The society that became responsible for building the obelisk changed into that of historic Egypt. One convenient method to believe of here's that historic Egyptian civilization lasted from 3000 B.C. to 30 B.C. that is about when Cleopatra IV died. although, the heyday of obelisks turned into in the 18th Dynasty, Egypt's age of optimum empire, and that came to an end about one thousand B.C. So the empire steadily dissolved. other splendid powers were on the rise, the Assyrians and later the Persians and of course the Romans, and just precisely why it fell into death is a complicated query. it's probably the most types of questions that archaeologists write Ph.D. dissertations about.

query: Do you think the Egyptians knew that the granite become extremely long lasting and chose it for that purpose or was it just the cloth they'd available to them? ~Marc

reply: No, Marc, they certainly knew that granite become long lasting. As a count number of truth, granite likely had a very particular symbolic magical significance for them. just why the different forms of hard stone and gentle stone that they inbuilt were chosen for a number of monuments they aren't bound. there may be ample to indicate, notwithstanding, that there have been magical causes that we're missing, that granite had a definite magical goal, as did alabaster, limestone, and the black granite and other difficult stones like dolorite. So there changed into likely a symbolic reason behind the stone that turned into chosen.

query: Why become the obelisk seated into the turning groove at a 32-degree slope? was it because the breaking gadget become now not ample? clear up this problem so so you might start the elevating from a 45-degree or more suitable beginning factor. Now, how about some camels, oxen, horses, or elephants for some precise vigour? first rate success, and Aloha from Maui!!! ~Gregory

reply: Yeah, ok, you�re correct. They may still have had the obelisk at more than 32 levels. subsequent time they hope to have it more like 45 or even steeper. And they recognize that it really is one of the crucial complications. they are going to are attempting to relevant it next time. Camels and elephants are out, because the ancient Egyptians didn't have camels and elephants. however they did have oxen, although probably in a fragile operation like moving the obelisk they would haven't have entrusted it to oxen, they would have used manpower.

question: It looks to me in case you can't pull the element up why do you now not simply push it up? i'd tend to think that if you applied drive to the different aspect of the obelisk it might maybe go up less complicated than if you pulled on it from the aspect you are. incidentally I loved the sand trap ideas. ~Craig

answer: i'm not sure what Craig ability by means of pushing it up. It depends on how the obelisk comes in on the different side, the opposite facet from the pullers. If it is available in lying down or essentially lying down like Martin Eisler had it, then you can not push it. or not it's a query of lifting. And despite the fact that it comes in at a 32-diploma slope or so, the style they did the big obelisk in the film, or not it's still a question of lifting, no longer pushing. And the lifting, of course, needs to be done with levers. So i'm not somewhat certain what Craig capacity with the aid of pushing.

query: The historic Egyptians were essentially the most prolific stone movers in history. Is there any written history on how they may additionally have moved big stones over enormous distances? I be aware seeing a reveal on television where the stones had been set in area by dragging them over a hole full of sand, the sand became then eliminated through an access tunnel, and the stone become slowly set in vicinity. the effort required (by using any components) to stream the Stonehenge stones over a 20-mile distance would have negated any method of elevating them that would were considered of venture. however your gadget labored, I consider the stones had been set into vicinity with some classification of dampening agent to make certain that the stones were no longer damaged. What do you think? ~Lowell

answer: Is there any written background on how they may have moved big stones over lengthy distances? The most effective depiction they now have of relocating a really big weight any distance is from the center Kingdom, the twelfth Dynasty: a tomb of a person named Jahuti Hotep. and there's a scene in his tomb, or there changed into a scene, it's very badly broken now, of, I agree with or not it's 172 guys pulling a really heavy, tremendous, enormous statue. The statue is estimated to have weighed fifty four lots. so you have lengthy traces of men going off in different ropes. this is the handiest scene depiction they now have. they have textual content bringing up people who went to quarries to get stones for pyramids, stones for obelisks, stones for monuments, and in a few cases we've specifications of the boats that had been constructed. I consider there may be a man named Aneni who went to fetch an obelisk for Thutmoses I, and he data, I consider, the building of a barge to move it, it truly is about three/4 the size and width, it truly is the width is ready three/4 the size. And so they now have inscriptions like that, but nothing genuine precise.

question: what is the estimated time (months, years) that it took the historical Egyptians to erect an obelisk (e.g., the greatest one), from the first chip within the quarry to the ultimate touches of the upright piece? ~Jon

reply: Hatsupsut facts that it took her seven months to construct her obelisk in Karnak. I agree with that will be the pair of which one remains standing. And if I don't forget accurately that is the full time she says it took to quarry, remove, transport and raise the obelisk, seven months.

question: instead of the usage of a ramp composed of two straight sections, why no longer use a parabolic curve in the 2d a part of the ramp? The parabolic half could assist move the obelisk round considering that the contact surface is decreased (notwithstanding you'll need a a good deal superior sled) and as the drop cost can be controlled, it gives a much better chance for the obelisk not to ruin upon landing on the bottom. moreover, that could help position the obelisk nearer to vertical—then it could be less demanding to tug to its completely vertical place. What do you consider? ~Steven

answer: A parabolic curve, certainly, would reduce the quantity of contact between the obelisk and the ramp right down to the pedestal. but it likely would had been a little bit difficult to assemble that parabolic curve out of mud brick, for example, or stone rubble, or mud brick compartments crammed with stone rubble and particles, or crammed with sand. And it's not going that they might have in-built stone comfortably to create a parabolic curve, on the grounds that many of the substances they used for secondary constructions, like ramps and embankments and so on, have been mud brick and particles.

query: How did the Egyptians make the big mounts of dirt? ~John

answer: neatly, they probably transported most of the material with no trouble with guys carrying baskets, the manner people raise dirt on excavations nowadays. it could look magnificent that they may have carried enough particles, sand or grime, for making these massive embankments and ramps and so forth. however truly, this is what they did. and they did it on an everyday foundation, no longer most effective for raising tremendous monuments, however for developing the dikes and canals on which Egypt's irrigation, agriculture depended. so they were very used to moving grime, which they did for his or her simple infrastructure all the time.

question: My husband and that i sail a forty two-foot sloop. On their mainsail, we've a distinctive-block equipment that allows me (at a hundred thirty lbs.) to alter their mainsail with one hand. The Egyptians have been completed boaters. Is there any evidence to imply that the Egyptians may also have had an identical technology? if so, may you use it along with your A-body constitution to raise the obelisk? ~Heather

reply: I accept as true with or not it's very proper that there should be crucial clues of their nautical know-how. I, myself, am not a boat grownup. So i'm now not totally conversant with a multiple block system, which is what Heather is suggesting. but the A-body, for example, that's been recommended as a gaining, as enabling the Egyptians to profit a mechanical expertise in lifting the obelisk, the A-body and the style it operates may additionally were very similar to the style they see masts operating on early boats, which can be very slender types of A-frames, in fact. or not it's not a single piece. It appears to be two pieces, with cross items like a extremely narrow A-frame. and i consider the end plate is a great one, that the style they raised these heavy masts and other aspects of nautical expertise doubtless holds clues as to how they did heavy weights like obelisks. In their subsequent creation, they hope to be having now not best an engineer, but additionally an historic boat expert on the scene. no longer just to are attempting a variety of ways of transporting the obelisk on a boat, however might be additionally to provide us insight into lifting operations, as Heather suggests, on land, for raising these heavy weights.

query: Weren't loads of obelisks put up two at a time? in that case, then could not a decreasing platform for one obelisk be used as a raised degree workman platform for the second obelisk? efficient use of mud-brick and not using a want for A-frames. ~Dennis

answer: Weren't loads of obelisks put up two at a time? neatly, some thing ramps and embankments they used for raising one obelisk doubtless have been used for two when the obelisks had been put up in pairs. And reasonably commonly they were. In their operation they had a superb pit between two ramp sections. And the pit—of direction on the bottom of the pit, you had the base of the obelisk. And the pit turned into for the tipping after which raising operation. they'd have needed to move the pit, definitely, or else had two pits, but that changed into no issue. They may have crammed them in. So sure, certainly, they might have constructed one exceptional ramp embankment device, sloping up from each side, or to both side of the temple pylon, with this excellent entrance. And after they desired to, they doubtless would have had to have raised the obelisk then in sequence, doing the farthest one first, putting it down into its pit, if it really is the formula they used. and then there it stood, you see. after which the different one from the route that the obelisks were being introduced in, would were brought in and deploy. surely, you could not have one obelisk standing and being within the way of the different one. that could suggest that in the event that they did use one ramp embankment device, it additionally suggests whatever about the order in which the two obelisks have been put up.

query: I actually have a book known as "Babylon secret faith—historic and modern" by way of Ralph Woodrow that comprises a chapter on obelisks. On chapter 5, page 34, the obelisk at St. Peter's rectangular at the Vatican is depicted in an ancient drawing being raised internal an difficult tremendous scaffold-like constitution surrounding the obelisk lifting with ropes from the top. I cannot inform, but pulleys, which certainly enhance the mechanical competencies, may well be on the true of the structure. Would this expertise have been purchasable to the historical Egyptians? ~Chris

answer: There is a few evidence that the Egyptians had a pulley-like device as early as the core Kingdom. even if these pulleys would were beneficial in moving heavy weights like obelisks is dubious, as a result of as Roger Hopkins features out, a pulley is a wheel, and the wheel is simply pretty much as good as its axle. And except you have iron and metal you simply can't get a robust sufficient axle to have a pulley taking and distributing weight on the size of four hundred and 300 tons, which is what the greatest obelisks weigh.

query: could the structures shown near the obelisk had been used to erect them? A drum connected to the neighborhood constitution may well be used to wind up a rope, thereby lifting the obelisk into place. this would require the know-how of turning the drug (or curler) as the method of propulsion (like a come-along) as an alternative of pulling the item with ropes and using the rollers best as a way to in the reduction of friction. Did they have got this technology? ~Ed

reply: while or not it's been recommended that the constructions near the obelisk may have been used to erect them, some americans have counseled in fact that the temple pylons, the exquisite entrance wall of the temple that stood appropriate at the back of the obelisk, or in front of which the obelisks had been raised, that that pylon might have been used as a lifting platform for ropes and guys. The problem is that the turning grooves aren't on that side of the pedestals of the obelisks. The turning grooves are usually perpendicular to the front of the temple, in order that the obelisks were brought in alongside the temple, front temple wall. it be possibly then that not one of the colossal statues or the front wall of the temple turned into very useful in raising the obelisk—that temporary banks, embankments and ramps would have been used.

query: Do you agree with the historic Egyptians noticed the obelisks as holy? additionally, as I watched your exhibit someone noted that the historical cities were developed to ultimate via eternity. What became the logic in the back of that query? Did the Egyptians in reality believe their empire would last invariably? ~James

answer: neatly, did the Egyptians trust their empire would closing perpetually? sure, they did. They expressed that desire again and again. They believed their empire, their temples, the splendid Karnak temple and these obelisks would stand forever. that they had two phrases for "continuously." One turned into djet, which capability permanently forever. And the different is Neheh, which capacity constantly always, for the entire cycles of time. In different phrases, continuously and ever. Now I mean somebody who might were a skeptical person in historical Egypt may have wondered if in fact that become the case. And they do have some skeptical literature from the ancient Egyptians themselves. once their civilization had lasted from 2,000 years or more, they started looking again and seeing one of the most prior buildings that their ancestors had developed already in ruins. so they weren't dummies. They could see that things fell aside. it be an interesting query although, because they might ask it about ourselves. Has any of us thought no matter if the realm alternate Towers in big apple metropolis are supposed to final continuously? what is the deliberate obsolescence of a skyscraper? what is the planned obsolescence of say, big apple or downtown la? will they suppose these items will closing forever?

query: Make an A-body, put the crossbar 3/4 of how down. Then attach ropes to the obelisk (at the accurate) and to the A frame (at the correct). Now connect more ropes to the crossbar, have your volunteer crew pull these. this will boost your leverage and multiply your pulling power three times. This should be more than adequate to correct the obelisk. (identify withheld by request)

reply: smartly, they certainly agree with that there are lots of more percentages with either one or multiple A-frames, and that they are able to basically, boost their leverage and profit a improved mechanical abilities. and that's the reason some of the issues that we're going to be attempting once they go lower back to continue to are trying to lift the obelisk.

question: might the picket help that the obelisk rests on, as it is dragged to its resting element, have wheels at its base (somewhat like a dolly), so when it's within the tilting slot or groove, it might be less demanding to position upright (like their arm and elbow), then when it be in position, burn the assist dolly on the equal time making settling alterations. (name withheld by using request)

answer: neatly, right here they have a tenet about wheels once more, that might be it might have been on some form of platform after which it was wheeled into place. once again they come returned to the concept, as they have been speaking about with pulleys. A pulley is a wheel, and it's like every wheels, the wheel is barely pretty much as good as its axle. And in an effort to lift really heavy loads, wheel methods like great semi-vehicles and the like, have very effective axles, to assert nothing of their engines, and the like. but the axles and the body of a flatbed truck, a mach truck or a semi with very heavy weight—they're very potent. Of direction it's made from difficult iron and steel. without iron and metal it's challenging, I accept as true with, to make a wheel system for you to elevate a heavy load. it is no longer to claim the Egyptians didn't have the wheel. They certainly did. it be just that it became no longer adaptable to carrying very heavy hundreds, because they didn't have that, they were no longer that fluent in the use of iron, and definitely they didn't have steel. Iron definitely comes in in a huge method in regards to the 26th Dynasty. that is the earliest that or not it's there in a big means. we've examples of iron earlier than that. So iron isn't truly there, conventional a great deal earlier than say 525 B.C.

query: I believe if they used a column or wheel of giant weight to roll down a ramp a specific distance and speed with talked about wheel or column winding up pulling ropes because it travels. I think diameter of wheel plus weight of wheel plus attitude of talked about ramp, plus the usage of A-frame would elevate obelisk. ~Marc

reply: Marc is talking about a wheel once more, but I feel it be a a bit diverse advice. or not it's no longer so a good deal a guideline of the use of a wheel with an axle. however an additional conception is to make heavy stones themselves wheels of varieties by using inserting timber items towards the aspects of the stone block for example, the wood items being rounded so that for those who put 4 of them around four sides of a block, you really created a wheel out of the block, and then which you can roll it along. I imply it is more feasible with stone blocks for pyramids, however likely now not feasible at all for a long tapering obelisk. i am now not sure if it really is what Marc is suggesting, however jogs my memory of that recommendation at any price.

question: i would like to throw in my two cents about a way to float the obelisk. Did you overlook that the Nile is simply currently the victim of human flood manage? historical solution: construct a drydock on the flood plain. Tie a barge off atop the drydock. Load the obelisk throughout the dry season. look ahead to the floods—glide away. Tie up at a similar facility down river. watch for waters to recede. dump the obelisk. Stone/rock piers apart the drydock would aid in on/off loading. ~Saxon

reply: well, we're returned to that suggestion they have been suggesting earlier about constructing a drydock on the flood undeniable. and i consider it's a pretty good suggestion. And it's whatever that it would be first-class for us to are trying. with the intention to are trying this, on account that the Nile basin of which I spoke, the flood basin that held the water for six to eight weeks out of every year when the Nile flooded its banks, these basins not flood. The dikes and levees of route are no longer in restoration as a result of just the high dams, the Egyptian Nile Valley now not floods. So with the intention to test this thought, which I consider is a very good one, they are going to have to create their own drydock in their personal little basin and someway are attempting to have it flooded. It may well be a whole operation involving pumps etc. they will see what they can do once they get returned to Aswan.

query: On the display, the obelisk is left unraised. turned into the obelisk ever raised? The exhibit is a number of years old; have there been any new discoveries that show how the ancients raised a 400-ton obelisk? (identify withheld through request)

answer: Will the obelisk ever be raised? I do not know that there had been any new discoveries about how they raised obelisks. The pleasing component is that many of the theories were already handy before they did their demonstrate. it be very rare, if ever, that people have completed the sort of experimental archaeology where you in fact go out and pull these heavy weights and lift them and so forth. i would want to emphasize once again that within the indicates, this whole pyramid and obelisks that they did with the historical expertise series with NOVA they were now not doing 100 percent replications of historical pyramid building or obelisk elevating. They were trying certain equipment, strategies and operations to profit greater insight and that i think they did. I do not consider they are able to actually make lots progress on new theories devoid of that sort of experimentation. nobody has ever tried to raise an historic Egyptian obelisk the usage of the historical equipment, ideas and operations before. and i comprehend that they have not done it due to the fact, or at least as far as i do know nobody has. That can be one of the vital explanation why there had been no new insights within the few years considering that they did the obelisk film. Our hope is that we'll come up with some new insights and possibly even some new theories when they go again to Aswan and give it one more are trying.

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