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DP-023W | Data Protection Admininstration for Windows using NetBackup 5.0

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DP-023W - Data Protection Admininstration for Windows using NetBackup 5.0 - braindump

Vendor Veritas
Exam Number DP-023W
Exam Name Data Protection Admininstration for Windows using NetBackup 5.0
Questions 86 Q & A
Recent Update February 14, 2019
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DP-023W exam Dumps Source : Data Protection Admininstration for Windows using NetBackup 5.0

Test Code : DP-023W
Test Name : Data Protection Admininstration for Windows using NetBackup 5.0
Vendor Name : Veritas
Q&A : 86 Real Questions

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Veritas Data Protection Admininstration for

Veritas technologies to provide govt corporations with information insurance plan and Cloud features | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Sep 18, 2018

Stephanie Simone

Veritas applied sciences, provider of enterprise statistics insurance plan and utility-described storage solutions, is getting into a government-huge contract for the U.S. time-honored capabilities Administration (GSA), providing federal agencies with records governance and cloud information management software.

below the contract, executive organizations may have entry to Veritas facts protection and cloud solutions at negotiated fees to permit for more desirable facts management.

The contract is derived from the GSA IT schedule 70 and utterly supports the Federal suggestions expertise Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Enhancement software.

The settlement brings Veritas’ enterprise statistics management portfolio to all eligible federal, state, local, and tribal govt companies.

These groups can build upon the statistics insurance policy basis of Veritas NetBackup and add extra records administration capabilities to accelerate their cloud initiatives.

one of the most initial choices include:

  • Veritas information perception helps agencies increase unstructured records governance to cut back charges, risk and achieve compliance through actionable intelligence into records ownership, utilization and entry controls.
  • Veritas eDiscovery Platform offers governments with the optimal evaluation toolkit for keeping apart relevant felony, regulatory and investigative objects, revealing context and prioritizing what is most vital, using a single utility.
  • Veritas InfoScale helps federal IT groups superior offer protection to tips and purposes throughout actual and virtual infrastructures. InfoScale minimizes downtime with the aid of providing high availability and disaster healing over any distance for vital enterprise capabilities, together with particular person databases, custom purposes and sophisticated multitier applications throughout actual, virtual and cloud environments.
  • Veritas commercial enterprise Vault, when provided as a solution with a FedRAMP licensed utility-as-a service (SaaS) cloud provider from bluesource (referred to as EV247), frees businesses from the overhead of possessing, working or managing e-mail and file archives. The EV247 answer is powered through the area’s main archiving technology from Veritas. it's a cloud platform, application archiving solution and managed provider multi functional.
  • Veritas 360 records management gives organizations the potential to seriously change their records to handle the challenges of conclusion-to-conclusion information administration by way of statistics visibility, compliance readiness, enterprise continuity, facts insurance plan and recoverability. It accomplishes all of those desires whereas conserving records/workload portability and storage optimization.
  • For extra assistance about this news, visit www.veritas.com.

    Veritas Enters New government-huge Cloud facts management settlement for the U.S. prevalent functions Administration | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    MOUNTAIN VIEW, Calif., Sept. 12, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Veritas applied sciences, the worldwide market share chief within the enterprise facts coverage and utility-described storage market, has entered into a government-large agreement for the U.S. accepted features Administration (GSA) to give federal agencies with statistics governance and cloud facts administration utility.

    under the contract, govt groups may have entry to Veritas information insurance plan and cloud options at negotiated costs to allow for improved records administration. The contract is derived from the GSA IT time table 70 and fully supports the Federal tips expertise Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Enhancement software.

    The agreement brings Veritas' award-successful business data management portfolio to all eligible federal, state, native and tribal executive groups. These corporations can construct upon the data insurance policy groundwork of Veritas NetBackup and add additional facts management capabilities to accelerate their cloud initiatives. one of the initial offerings consist of:

  • Veritas statistics insight helps businesses improve unstructured data governance to cut back charges, possibility and obtain compliance through actionable intelligence into facts ownership, usage and access controls.
  • Veritas eDiscovery Platform gives governments with the top-rated evaluation toolkit for keeping apart valuable prison, regulatory and investigative items, revealing context and prioritizing what is most important, the use of a single application.
  • Veritas InfoScale helps federal IT groups more desirable give protection to guidance and purposes across physical and digital infrastructures. InfoScale minimizes downtime via presenting excessive availability and disaster healing over any distance for important business functions, together with particular person databases, customized purposes and sophisticated multitier purposes throughout physical, digital and cloud environments.
  • Veritas business Vault, when provided as an answer with a FedRAMP authorized software-as-a carrier (SaaS) cloud provider from bluesource (called EV247), frees businesses from the overhead of owning, running or managing e-mail and file archives. The EV247 answer is powered by using the area's leading archiving know-how from Veritas. it is a cloud platform, software archiving solution and managed provider multi function.
  • Veritas 360 statistics administration gives businesses the means to radically change their data to tackle the challenges of end-to-conclusion facts administration by using statistics visibility, compliance readiness, company continuity, records protection and recoverability. It accomplishes all of those aim while holding information/workload portability and storage optimization.
  • "The IT agenda 70 FITARA Enhancement software will give executive groups with greater flexibility in getting access to the imaginitive application solutions they want at a more robust price to taxpayers," stated Alan Thomas, GSA Federal Acquisition provider (FAS) Commissioner. "providing these solutions through a govt-wide, commercial enterprise-degree contract is a very good approach to cut back duplication in our procurement procedure."

    "With the upward push of cybercrime, the introduction of latest information laws, an upturn of records increase and escalation of digital privacy, federal businesses nowadays should be organized to make strategic decisions around statistics collection, facts storage, the place of that facts—and how it will also be safeguarded," talked about Tom Kennedy, vp and accepted supervisor, Veritas Public Sector. "as the undisputed chief in information coverage and utility-defined storage, Veritas is providing govt corporations convenient entry to solutions that assist combat these pressures – to take note facts, maintain it included, improve information availability, free up the vigour of assistance and garner insights to force improvements in executive classes." 

    in regards to the IT time table 70 FITARA Enhancement ProgramThe Federal assistance technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) is a GSA program designed to make it less complicated and extra inexpensive for federal corporations to purchase utility. FITARA changed into passed by Congress in 2014 and the workplace of management and funds (OMB) implemented advice in 2016. It aims to cut back fees and bring imaginative technology to the federal executive.

    About VeritasVeritas applied sciences is the chief in the international enterprise facts insurance policy and application-defined storage market. We aid essentially the most essential agencies on earth, including 86 percent of the international Fortune 500, returned up and get well their statistics, preserve it comfy and obtainable, guard in opposition t failure and obtain regulatory compliance. As corporations modernize their IT infrastructure, Veritas supplies the technology that helps them cut back dangers and capitalize on their data. be taught more at www.veritas.com or follow us on Twitter at @veritastechllc.

    Veritas and the Veritas brand are trademarks or registered logos of Veritas applied sciences LLC or its associates in the U.S. and different nations. other names could be logos of their respective homeowners.

    PR Contact

    Veritas TechnologiesDayna Fried +1 925 493 9020dayna.fried@veritas.com


    Cision View normal content to down load multimedia:https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/veritas-enters-new-executive-wide-cloud-statistics-management-contract-for-the-us-prevalent-functions-administration-300710751.html

    supply Veritas applied sciences

    Polluters are paying tons decrease fines under Trump, EPA says | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    “a robust enforcement and compliance assurance software is basic to reaching nice public health and environmental results,” Susan Bodine, assistant administrator of the workplace of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance, pointed out in an announcement.

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    Data Protection Admininstration for Windows using NetBackup 5.0

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    Using Symantec NetBackup OpenStorage for disk-to-disk backup and recovery | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Three of the big headlines so far this year have been data growth, the economy and data deduplication in backup. The first headline, relentless data growth, is the root cause of most issues in the backup environment. In an effort to meet service-level agreements (SLAs) for data backup and recovery, more and more organizations are deploying disk in the backup process. With disk, IT organizations can better meet backup windows and recovery objectives. But as IT "modernizes" its backup infrastructure with disk-to-disk backup, new problems emerge -- specifically, the cost of managing copies stored on disk, and the feasibility of taking disk-based backup copies and making them portable for offsite and/or long-term storage.

    Deduplication addresses the first issue -- it changes the economics of disk-based backup, allowing more data to be stored in a smaller footprint. The second problem is the new pain point for end users that have adopted disk. How can they rapidly, securely, cost-effectively, and efficiently get data offsite for disaster recovery (DR) or long-term retention? Sure, most target devices with deduplication can replicate copies, but is the backup application's catalog aware of the copy? That's where Symantec Corp. Veritas NetBackup OpenStorage (OST) technology comes in.

    Symantec announced its NetBackup OpenStorage initiative a few years ago. It is designed to allow NetBackup users to utilize third-party storage solutions without the need for tape emulation.

    Available as an option for NetBackup 6.5 and higher, NetBackup OpenStorage gives NetBackup a common interface for third-party disk targets. NetBackup sees OST-enabled appliances as disk, enabling features such as intelligent capacity management, media server load balancing, reporting, and lifecycle policies. It also delivers optimized duplication. Without OST, NetBackup media servers have to manage all duplicate backup copies, which means that data must be transferred across the LAN, WAN, or SAN from the primary site secondary storage to a NetBackup media server and then to the disaster recovery site storage medium (i.e., another appliance of the same type or tape media). With OST, the OST-enabled device is doing the replication and the data path does not include NetBackup media servers. This means that only changed segments are replicated, creating savings in bandwidth and, importantly, time. NetBackup is aware of all copies and those copies follow established retention policies.

    Symantec Technology Enabled Program (STEP) partners -- such as Data Domain, EMC Corp., FalconStor Software, and Quantum Corp. -- leverage the NetBackup OpenStorage technology API to create plug-ins for their storage systems. OST allows for backup data to be stored on disk with whatever protocol the target device uses, such as a Fibre Channel or TCP/IP. Based on NetBackup policies or commands, the OST-enabled device will create, duplicate or delete copies.

    One of the more interesting byproducts of the use of the NetBackup OpenStorage interface is the performance improvement in backup. Several STEP partners with an OST-enabled solution claim 50% to100% improvement in backup performance. Richard Nosal, a server administrator for High Point Regional Health System in Greensboro, N.C., implemented the NetBackup OST option with a Data Domain DD660 and saw his pre-OST 10-hour backup window with a virtual tape library cut in half.

    Since the NetBackup catalog is aware of all copies, recovery of data from a NetBackup OpenStorage-optimized duplicate copy is the same as recovery from another duplicate. Through NetBackup's Backup-Archive-Restore GUI, the OST-optimized duplicate copy can be designated as the primary copy and then a full or granular recovery can be initiated. The potential time savings over recovery from a non-OST-optimized duplicate could be significant.

    About this author:Lauren Whitehouse is an analyst with Enterprise Strategy Group and covers data protection technologies. Lauren is a 20-plus-year veteran in the software industry, formerly serving in marketing and software development roles.

    NAS Advantages: A VARs View | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    NAS Advantages: A VAR`s View

    Potential benefits of network-attached storage (NAS) include faster data access, easier administration, and no-brainer configuration.

    Ron Levine

    Don Schrenk, a storage consultant with Direct Connect Systems, a value-added reseller in Marietta, GA, has specialized in providing network storage solutions to Fortune 1000 clients for more than four years. InfoStor recently talked with Schrenk to get his thoughts about the advantages of NAS and how it can be implemented in a range of environments.

    Why is NAS gaining popularity?

    Network administrators are always on the lookout for dependable, expandable, and easy-to-install options to alleviate server storage overload. NAS fills the bill. Basically, NAS removes the file-server function from overloaded general-purpose servers. It does this via a specialized, high- performance network-attached file server, sometimes referred to as a "filer."

    On a network, data-access time determines how rapidly you can do your job. For instance, how fast securities traders process orders, how quickly product designers can get their wares to market, and how promptly corporate intranet users can download a file depends, in part, on data-access time. NAS devices ensure users fast and reliable access to data.

    What are some of the factors to consider before implementing NAS?

    The first thing you look at is how many users you have on the system. Are there enough users to justify [buying a NAS device]? Next, you look at what the users are doing when they log onto the server, because if you have 50 clients and all 50 need to log onto the same Unix machine, they have to go through seven million lines of code essentially to get to their data. What that does is place an undue overhead on that machine. It`s supposed to be number-crunching, but it can`t because you have clients trying to access their data. That`s when you consider using a NAS device to offload those clients.

    When is NAS not a good idea?

    If a customer tells us they need absolute 100% fault tolerance, I may not recommend NAS. Instead, I`d probably use dual-redundant servers with more than one network interface so there is no single point of failure.

    What makes NAS devices so easy to install?

    It`s a specialized dedicated appliance designed to perform one function only--file access and storage--so it`s not a complicated device. At Direct Connect Systems, we`re most familiar with Network Appliance`s NetApp Filer because we`ve used it as a storage solution for a number of our clients, but all NAS devices are similar in this respect.

    Filers come with their own circuit boards, embedded software, and power supplies. The NetApp Filer simply plugs into a 10-BASE-T, 100-BASE-T, FDDI, ATM and/or Gigabit Ethernet LAN. Once installed, the applications never notice it.

    How do you get it going?

    It`s almost automatic in a Unix, Windows, or combination environment. Once plugged in, you wait a few minutes for the embedded software to detect and configure to your existing system. Then, it looks like any other server on your network. We`ve found that NAS servers easily integrate into LANs as an extension of the main servers` hard-disk capacity. Because the NetApp filer does not have proprietary hardware (it`s based on Alpha or Intel processors and an EISA bus), has a simplified operating system designed just for file serving, includes a RAID storage configuration and component redundancy, its reliability approaches 100% uptime.

    You mainly work with Fortune 1000 clients. What are these companies most concerned with once the NAS server is up and operating?

    The questions we most often get concern backup, administration, and various application issues.

    What are the appliance`s backup capabilities?

    Reliable data backup is essential to any disaster prevention plan and is a major concern to our clients. The NetApp Filer supports three file backup methodologies: the filer`s "dump" command, support for NDMP [Network Data Management Protocol], and backup across NFS or CIFS platforms. The "dump" command is similar to the familiar Unix "dump" command. NDMP is a standard by which an enterprise backup system--such as Veritas` Netbackup, IBM`s ADSM, or Legato`s Networker--can direct the backup of the NetApp Filer. The third backup method supported is a straight NFS or CIFS backup. Here, the Filer is backed up as if it were local disk space to the NFS or CIFS client station.

    How does a NAS server ease system administration issues?

    This is another reason why these devices are so popular. As an example of their simplicity, the NetApp Filer we install has just 39 commands and a small group of configuration files, making it extremely easy to maintain and administer. Filer administration can be accomplished through the serial console connection, a telnet connection across the TCP/IP network, or through the FilerView GUI using a Java-capable Web browser. Administrators usually require less than a half day to learn how to fully operate and administer the Filer.

    Sounds easy, but are there risks to running user applications?

    The NAS server provides file service--that`s all. The application actually runs locally to a compute server that has accessed the filer using NFS mounts or CIFS shares. Now, there are some applications that prevent their data from being stored on a network-attached drive. But if your application can utilize disk space accessed across the network, it will run on the NetApp Filer or other NAS devices.

    Because you`re most familiar with the NetApp Filer, what are some of its key features?

    -The WAFL (write anywhere file layout) file system, which reduces drive bottlenecks.

    - The Data ONTAP operating system, which contains only 300,000 lines of code. This is extremely efficient compared to Unix or NT with millions of lines of code.

    - Full read-ahead caching on files less than 100K in size.

    - Native multi-protocol support. The NetApp filer currently supports NFS (Unix), CIFS (NT and Windows), and HTTP, allowing for file sharing across LANs.

    - RAID-4 configuration to ensure data protection.

    What`s an example of a recent NAS installation you`ve done for a client, and what were the advantages?

    One client of ours, ADTRAN Inc. in Huntsville, AL, is a designer and manufacturer of transmission products. They had a network storage problem, and the NetApp Filer provided the perfect solution. The huge CAD files used by the company`s engineers were negatively impacting overall network performance and were close to utilizing full network storage capacity. Not only was a network storage bottleneck near, but exacerbating the problem was the fact that Unix and Windows NT users could not share files. What they needed was a common pool of disk storage that would keep more files on-line and allow full file sharing across the enterprise. NAS provided added capacity for all users across the network, and it`s also extremely reliable; a lost CAD file is something that ADTRAN can`t tolerate.

    The key benefits for ADTRAN were file sharing, reliability, high-speed performance, and ease of administration. And because it supports multiple-protocols, Unix and NT users can share stored files without using any emulation software on the clients. We installed a NetApp Model F520 Filer with 80GB in a RAID-4 configuration. Since then, ADTRAN has added another 80GB. The additional drives were easy to install--just slide them into the drive shelf and execute a single command. In seconds, the usable disk space was doubled. Today, ADTRAN has about 40 users accessing the Filer over a Fast Ethernet LAN--mostly engineers storing large CAD files and backup file indices on the NAS device. The filer, which is available 24 hours a day, also supports remote access.

    Click here to enlarge image

    NetApp`s multiprotocol architecture provides native support for NFS, CIFS and HTTP, which eliminates the overhead and compatibility issues sometimes associated with emulation software.

    Ron Levine is a freelance writer in Carpenteria, CA, and a regular contributor to InfoStor. Direct Connect Systems can be contacted at (770) 933-9327 or by visiting their Web site at www.directconnect.com.

    Shootout at the Disk Repair Corral | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Some things are inevitable. Death, taxes, and disk crashes. One day you will try to open an important file, only to receive a dire error message. Or perhaps you’ll discover that an entire folder has vanished. Worse yet, maybe your Mac won’t even boot, thanks to some sort of disk corruption.

    Fortunately, you have a full backup of all your data, so you just restore the missing data from your backup, and you’re back in business. What’s that you say? The last time you backed up was during the Reagan administration?

    If an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure, then surely the most effective disk repair program is actually a reliable backup utility. My favorite is Dantz’s Retrospect. But whatever backup program you choose, you must use it regularly, so you have a current backup when your hard disk is called to that great clean room in the sky. (See the TidBITS article series, "Have You Backed Up Today?" for more details on setting up a good backup strategy.)


    Yet just as so many of us would prefer to lose weight by taking a magic pill rather than through diet and exercise, we’d rather fix a corrupted disk with a disk utility, rather than restoring from a backup, even when a recent backup is available. It can take many hours to do a full restore from a backup, whereas a good disk utility can often fix minor disk errors in minutes.

    Some of the Macintosh world’s favorite disk repair programs have recent upgrades, and here I’ll compare the Norton Disk Doctor tool in Symantec’s Norton Utilities 8.0 ($100), Alsoft’s DiskWarrior 3.0 ($80), Micromat’s Drive 10 1.1.4 ($70), SubRosaSoft’s DiskGuardian 2.2 ($70), and Apple’s Disk Utility (free). Although these programs contain a wide variety of disparate features, I concentrate on their disk repair functions in Mac OS X. I chose not to include Prosoft Engineering’s Data Rescue X, because it recovers files onto another disk and does not repair the damaged disk itself.

    <http://www.symantec.com/nu/nu_mac/><http://www.alsoft.com/DiskWarrior/><http://www.micromat.com/drive_10/drive_10_ introduction.html><http://www.subrosasoft.com/><http://www.prosoftengineering.com/products/data _rescue.php>

    The user interface and ancillary features of a disk repair program are secondary, because in the event of disaster you care about only one thing: will it get my data back? So let’s concentrate on the heart of the issue: what are the most common disk errors you may experience, and which disk repair programs can save your bacon when you’re unfortunate enough to suffer disk corruption?

    In my experience, most people run into three general categories of disk problems: hardware failure, bad sectors, and damaged directories. After a brief examination of how you get started with these programs, given that you can’t repair an active startup disk in Mac OS X, I look at the worst type of problem – hardware failures, after which I examine the soft errors and compare the performance of the disk repair programs.

    Booty Call — One disadvantage of Mac OS X is that a disk repair program can’t safely check the startup disk. Despite this, and the fact that Apple’s official line is that checking startup disks is not supported, Norton Disk Doctor and DiskGuardian both allow checking of the startup disk, although they warn against doing so. I consider messing about with startup disks under Mac OS X dangerous, and I advise you not to do it.

    Fortunately, there is a simple solution. Restart in "single user mode" by holding down Command-S while the Mac is starting up. In single user mode, you’re dropped into a command line version of Mac OS X, without windows or a mouse pointer. Type "fsck -y" to check (and repair, if necessary) the boot disk, after which you restart the Mac by typing "reboot" (sans quotes for both commands). Disk Utility and fsck rely on the same engine, so running fsck in single user mode is exactly the same as running Disk Utility.

    If you’re uncomfortable with the command line for even two commands, you have an alternative. If you boot your Mac using the Mac OS X Installer CD, you can run Disk Utility from there. At the first screen in the Installer, choose Open Disk Utility from the Installer menu.

    What about the other disk repair programs? All except DiskGuardian (for now, but a new version is expected soon) come on bootable CDs. Insert the CD, turn on your Mac, and hold down the C key to force the computer to boot from the CD. Bootable CDs are essential in the event that your hard disk is so badly damaged that your computer won’t even start up.

    It’s Dead, Jim — Let’s look at what can go wrong now. Hardware failure can result from the electronics on the drive’s controller board burning out, or the heads or the arm developing mechanical problems. Sometimes a problem with the lubricating grease prevents the disk from spinning or the read arm from moving, causing a problem known as "sticktion."

    These problems are caused by dropping the disk, by defective components, by static discharge, or even by sheer age. Usually the disk won’t even show up on the Desktop. As far as the disk utilities go, Drive 10 can detect hardware errors with a "Unit Ready" test, which is just what it sounds like. Drive 10 asks the drive "Are you ready?" and the drive replies "No." This test is mostly helpful for confirming hardware errors you probably already suspect.

    Hopefully there’s no vital data locked in the dead drive. No software program can repair a disk with hardware problems. If you desperately need to retrieve the data, your only option is a data recovery company such as DriveSavers, who I’ve found to be professional, competent, and expensive. (Also see Jeff Carlson’s report in "DriveSavers to the Rescue" in TidBITS-495.)


    Extended Warranties — If your drive has just suffered a hardware failure, you’re probably checking the warranty and hunting for your receipt. Don’t despair, even if your computer or external hard drive is out of warranty from the manufacturer. Many hard drives, even those installed in computers, are also covered by longer warranties provided by the OEM (original equipment manufacturer), the company that actually made the drive. If you’re willing and able to open a case and remove the drive mechanism, you can take advantage of this warranty.

    Here’s the trick. Although you may have bought the computer from Apple, or the drive from VST, those companies don’t make drive mechanisms. Instead, your drive was probably made by IBM, Seagate, Maxtor, HP, Western Digital, or another hard drive manufacturer. These companies often offer an independent warranty on their drives, and it’s often longer than the warranty on your Mac or external hard drive. Drive mechanism warranties may be two years, and some run as long as five years. Better yet, if you’ve lost the receipt, the company can sometimes look up a drive’s serial number to verify that it’s still under warranty.

    Both HP and IBM have replaced dead drives for me, without a receipt, simply by checking my serial numbers. Even better, IBM didn’t make 14 GB drives anymore, so they replaced my dead one with a 20 GB unit.

    SMART Stuff — Some modern hard drives have a feature called SMART, which stands for Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology. Originally developed by IBM, SMART-compliant drives constantly perform diagnostics to monitor variables like drive temperature, spin up time, and how well the heads stay on track. By noting when these physical parameters slip out of spec, SMART can predict some types of drive failure before they happen, giving you time to back up your data and buy a new drive.

    Unfortunately, most hard drives have no way to tell you about an impending disaster; you need a program to query the drive’s SMART statistics. Both DiskWarrior and DiskGuardian can check the drive at regular intervals and alert you if they find trouble.

    Using SMART works well if your disk has a factory defect that’s slowly getting worse, because it gives you time to move your data to a new disk. But SMART doesn’t help you deal with the occasional bad sector or corrupted directory, much less catastrophic hardware failures. Since I don’t have a drive with impending hardware failure, I was unable to test the SMART capabilities of DiskWarrior and DiskGuardian.

    Unsavory Sectors — Now it’s time to move from pure hardware problems to problems that could be either physical (hardware) or logical (software). Disks are broken up into sectors. Each sector usually holds 512 bytes of data. There are two types of problems that lead to bad sectors: hard errors and soft errors.

    Hard errors are caused by physical damage to the disk surface. Dropping the disk and manufacturing defects are the most common causes of hard errors. Although there’s no way to repair hard errors, they can be "fixed" by "sparing" the bad sector. Disks maintain a small number of spare sectors in reserve; when a hard error occurs, the drive controller maps out the bad sector and uses one of the spare sectors in its place.

    How are these bad sectors spared? SCSI hard disks provide a SCSI command – "reassign" – to spare a bad sector. A low-level format also spares any bad sectors. On pre-SCSI disks, a low-level format was the only way to fix bad sectors.

    Many modern disks, including many internal ATA, FireWire, and USB drives, automatically spare sectors with hard errors the next time the sector is written. That’s helpful, but if data is stored on that sector, programs may be unable to read it successfully, causing problems and making it difficult to spare. Erasing the disk with Apple’s Disk Utility spares any bad sectors if you select the "Zero all data" option.

    What about soft errors? In addition to the 512 bytes of data stored in each sector, a few additional bytes hold an error correction code (ECC). When the sector is written, the drive’s controller computes and records the ECC. When the file system later reads that sector, it checks the ECC to make sure the data hasn’t been corrupted. If the ECC doesn’t match the data, it’s called a soft error. The disk surface is fine, but the data on that sector has become scrambled.

    Soft errors can be caused if the disk is jarred while it’s writing or if power is lost while writing, either of which can leave a sector half written. Large magnets (such as can be found in electric motors) next to hard disks also tend to have bad effects on the data. As with hard errors, most modern disks repair soft errors automatically the next time the sector is written.

    Bad Sector Detector – Norton Disk Doctor, DiskGuardian and Drive 10 (but not DiskWarrior or Disk Utility) claim to detect bad sectors using a test called either a "defective media check" or a "surface scan." Using a proprietary tool that creates soft errors on disks, I tested each program.

    Although Norton Disk Doctor claims to be able to find and repair bad sectors, its defective media check didn’t detect the bad sectors on my test disk, erroneously giving it gave a clean bill of health.

    DiskGuardian detected the bad sectors, although it took several hours to run a full check. Unfortunately, it didn’t tell me which files used the bad sectors, so I had no way of finding out which files were damaged and would thus need to be restored from backup. DiskGuardian lacks the capability to repair bad sectors.

    Like DiskGuardian, Drive 10 detected the bad sectors, but didn’t identify which files were damaged. Confusingly, Drive 10’s report describing the damage claimed it could fix the bad sectors, but I couldn’t find a command to fix them. Micromat tech support confirmed the report was wrong; Drive 10 can’t fix the bad sectors it finds. It’s too bad, since Drive 10 could fix the bad sectors merely by writing zeros to them.

    Although Disk Utility cannot scan for bad sectors, it can fix bad sectors on modern disks if you erase the disk with the "Zero all data" option selected.

    I must rate all these products unacceptable in dealing with bad sectors. Even though two could detect bad sectors, none of them could tell you which files contain bad sectors, making it impossible to learn which files you should restore from your backup. Only Disk Utility successfully fixed the bad sectors, but at the price of erasing the entire disk.

    Ripping the Yellow Pages — We’ve now looked at pure hardware failures, and bad sectors, which can be either hard errors or soft errors, and so far, our disk repair utilities don’t help much at all. Now it’s time to move on to problems that exist entirely in software, the most common type of which are errors in the directory, which tracks the files and folders on the disk. In the case of directory errors, there is nothing wrong with the drive mechanism or the disk surface; instead, the directory information that’s necessary to locate your data on the disk has simply become scrambled. Often your data is intact, if it could just be located.

    As an aside, people with important data sometimes use mirrored disks or RAID arrays, which faithfully duplicate each byte on the main disk to a backup disk. If the main disk suffers a hardware failure or develops a bad sector, the backup disk can save the day. However, it’s worth noting that this strategy provides absolutely no protection against directory damage. That’s because the RAID faithfully records all data to the backup disk, whether or not that data is good, which results in both the main disk and the backup disk containing corrupt data. I may sound like your mother telling you to eat your vegetables, but the best protection really is regular backups.

    The most common cause of directory damage is crashing. If the computer crashes while a file is being created or saved, causing only part of the change to be written to disk, the directory will contain inconsistent information. Mac OS X crashes far less often than Mac OS 9, but directory-corrupting crashes can and do still occur. Both Mac OS 9 and Mac OS X automatically check and repair the startup disk after a crash, which reduces the incidence of disk damage dramatically.

    A new feature in Mac OS X 10.3 Panther that should reduce directory errors even more is the journalled file system. You can enable it in Disk Utility, and it’s usually turned on for disks onto which you install Panther. Here’s how journalling works. Before the file system changes the directory, it leaves a note on the disk saying, "I’m going to make this change in the directory." Then the file system makes the change, and once it finishes, it clears the note. If the file system ever sees an incomplete change note on the disk during startup, it knows something bad happened and "rolls back" the directory to its previous state. You will lose your last change, but the directory won’t suffer any damage.

    Other causes of damaged directories include buggy programs that write bad data to disk, buggy programs that overwrite cached data waiting to be written to disk, and even bugs in the file system itself. The first two are much less likely in Mac OS X than in Mac OS 9 because of its file privileges and memory protection, respectively. Bugs in the file system are extremely rare but have occurred at times in the past.

    It’s worth noting that directory damage is not always readily apparent. A damaged disk may appear to operate perfectly, but regular use can cause minor errors to grow into serious problems. Most directory problems are easy to fix if they’re caught early but can be difficult, if not impossible, to fix later. That’s why checking and repairing startup disks automatically after a crash is so important, and why it’s essential to leave the Check Disk option turned on in Mac OS 9’s General Controls control panel (the disk check isn’t optional in Mac OS X).

    To test how the disk repair utilities perform with different types of directory errors, I created an HFS+ disk image, copied an assortment of files and folders to it, and then used a low-level disk editor to damage various directory data structures. I then duplicated the damaged disk image, and let each utility try to repair its own copy. Each utility repaired an identical disk image, with identical damage.

    Errors Speak Volumes — For my first test, I started with relatively simple damage in the volume bit map, which is also known as the allocation file. The volume bit map tracks which blocks on the disk contain files, and which are unused. All five utilities fixed my damaged volume bit map easily.

    Next up was damage to the volume header, which tracks vital information about the disk, such as the amount of used and free space, and the locations of the catalog and allocation file. The volume header is stored at the beginning of the HFS+ partition. I erased the volume header’s signature, which makes the file system assume the volume header is corrupt and refuse to use the disk. Fortunately, the file system keeps a backup copy of the volume header at the end of the disk; it’s imaginatively called the alternate volume header. All five of our utilities successfully repaired the disk, although Drive 10 and DiskGuardian couldn’t figure out the name of the damaged disk.

    Catalog Catastrophe — The catalog b-tree tracks all the files and folders on the disk. It’s a vitally important part of the directory, and many of my tests focus on it. The catalog is divided into nodes, and each node is divided into records. Most records track a file or folder on the disk, although some contain threads or indexes, which are used internally by the file system to look up files and folders.

    The first node in the catalog is called the header node, which points to other key nodes. I erased the header node. Norton Disk Doctor, DiskWarrior, and Drive 10 recreated the header node properly; Disk Utility and DiskGuardian failed to fix it. Once again, Drive 10 couldn’t figure out the name of the damaged disk.

    The header node also contains a map which tracks which nodes are used and which are free. I corrupted this map, but my corruption didn’t faze any of the utilities, all of which successfully fixed the header node map.

    The nodes in the catalog are linked together in a precise pattern of connections. Horizontal links connect nodes on the same level, and downward links connect the levels. The file system relies on these links to look up files and folders. I damaged these links. As happened when I erased the catalog header node, Norton Disk Doctor, DiskWarrior, and Drive 10 fixed these links, but Disk Utility and DiskGuardian weren’t able to put the links back together.

    File and folder records are stored in alphabetical order in the catalog. I rearranged these records, putting them in random order. All the utilities restored the alphabetical order.

    Certain characters, such as a colon, are illegal in file and folder names. Normally, the operating system prevents you from typing an illegal character when saving a file or creating a folder, but it’s not inconceivable that unusual circumstances could cause one to appear. I renamed a folder with a colon by inserting the colon directly into the folder record in the catalog. With this test, the results start to become more interesting. Disk Utility and DiskGuardian didn’t detect any problem. Drive 10 noticed the illegal character, but didn’t fix it. Norton Disk Doctor and DiskWarrior both fixed it properly by replacing the colon with a legal character.

    More Catalog Corruption — Each catalog node ends with a map that points back to the records in that node. I damaged the map for one of the nodes, which sounds bad, but it’s still possible to find the records by calculating the size of each record to find the next record. Disk Utility and Norton Disk Doctor realized there was a problem, but they couldn’t fix it. Drive 10 and DiskGuardian both identified and fixed the problem, but in the process lost five and six files, respectively. Partial repair isn’t always better than complete failure, since you may believe the disk was repaired successfully and only later – potentially much later – realize that some files have been lost. DiskWarrior fixed the catalog node map properly.

    Next, I changed a thread record to be an unknown type of record, which creates two problems. A thread record that the file system relied upon was missing, and it was confronted by a record with an illegal type. Disk Utility and DiskGuardian detected the corruption, but couldn’t fix it. DiskWarrior fixed the problem but lost some of the data in one file. Only Drive 10 and Norton Disk Doctor managed to repair my damage properly.

    Note that DiskWarrior moves any files it suspects may have problems into a folder called Rescued Items. In my tests, most of these files turned out to be fine. This approach has the advantage that it’s clear which files may be damaged. But if the Rescued Items folder contains many files, checking them and putting them away can be tedious. Norton Disk Doctor can optionally put aliases to damaged files in a folder, a potentially more helpful feature. But in my tests it didn’t work. Norton Disk Doctor also lists the names of damaged files in its report.

    The most important aspect of a file record is the location of the file’s data on the disk. One of the worst sorts of directory damage that you may see happens when two files try to occupy the same physical space at the same time. Different utilities refer to this problem as "overlapping extents" or "cross-linked files." In the best case, one file has entirely overwritten the other, since then one file has valid data, while the other’s data is completely gone. In the worst case, the two files somehow manage to interleave their data, which results in both being damaged beyond repair. I cross-linked two files, thus damaging the files’ catalog records, as well as the volume header and volume bit map. Disk Utility and DiskGuardian repaired the catalog records, the volume header, and the volume bit map, but they didn’t actually separate the two files. In contrast, Drive 10, DiskWarrior and Norton Disk Doctor fixed the damage and separated the files. It’s important to realize that the data in the overwritten file couldn’t be recovered, but not through any failing of these repair programs. When one file overwrites another, the unlucky file has no chance of surviving the encounter.

    I See Fragged People — Some months ago, I wrote an article for TidBITS explaining why defragmenting disks generally isn’t worthwhile (see "Optimizing Disks Is a Waste of Time" in TidBITS-686). Although fragmentation is totally normal and acceptable, serious fragmentation requires additional directory structures, and they too can become corrupted and require repair.


    Using another proprietary tool, I fragmented a disk very badly, which breaks files into so many pieces that the file record in the catalog b-tree can’t track them all. The file system responds by creating new records in the extents b-tree to help track all the pieces. The extents b-tree is like the catalog b-tree, but exists solely to help track highly fragmented files. Again, severe fragmentation is not inherently a problem, but I had put the disk into a precarious, if legal, state. I then damaged two extent records so the file system couldn’t find all the pieces to two files, but I damaged each in a different way. Disk Utility, DiskGuardian, and Drive 10 all detected my damaged extent records, but weren’t able to repair the damage. DiskWarrior and Norton Disk Doctor performed better, fixing the problem but losing part of the data in one file. Considering the type of damage I inflicted, they did as well as could be expected.

    HFS+ volumes are enclosed in a "wrapper," which is actually a plain old HFS volume. The reason for the wrapper is historical. Apple first released HFS+ with Mac OS 8.1. If you connected an HFS+-formatted disk to a Mac running Mac OS 8.0 or earlier – in other words, one that understood only the older HFS format, the wrapper kept the older system from deciding the HFS+ disk was damaged and offering to initialize it. For my next test, I damaged the catalog b-tree header node in the wrapper. Disk Utility and DiskGuardian didn’t notice anything wrong. Drive 10 and DiskWarrior detected the corrupt wrapper, but didn’t fix it. Norton Disk Doctor identified the damage and fixed it properly.

    Disks can contain multiple partitions, which are listed in a partition map at the beginning of the disk. Since disk images don’t have partition maps, I used an external FireWire hard disk for this test, in which I damaged the partition map, making the disk driver’s partition overlap the HFS partition. Of all these disk repair utilities, only Norton Disk Doctor claims to check partition maps, and indeed it was the only one to detect the problem, although even it proved incapable of fixing the overlapping partition map. Luckily, damaged partition maps are extremely rare, which may be why none of the other utilities bother to check them.

    The Grand Finale — Finally, I decided to recreate the worst damage I’ve ever seen on a Macintosh hard disk. Starting with the badly fragmented disk above, I corrupted and overwrote various parts of the catalog and extent b-trees. In some nodes I corrupted the node header (not to be confused with the header node), in some I munged the data records, and in others I zapped the record offset map. A few lucky nodes suffered all three types of damage at the hands of my disk editor. Only DiskWarrior was able to bring the disk back to a usable state, although 35 files were either lost or partly damaged. That 35 files were lost or damaged is not an indictment of DiskWarrior; the program couldn’t have done any better, considering how much vital information had been destroyed. None of the other utilities managed to repair the disk successfully.

    And the Winner Is… Of my 15 tests, DiskWarrior fixed 12 successfully, Norton Disk Doctor fixed 11, Drive 10 fixed 9, DiskGuardian fixed 5, and Disk Utility fixed 4. "Fixed" includes cases where recovery may not have been perfect, but was good enough.

    So what, in my professional opinion, should you do if your disk starts acting up? First, try Apple’s free Disk Utility. It may fix only a limited set of problems, but when Disk Utility finds a problem, it’s invariably correct, and it applies fixes only when it’s absolutely certain it knows the correct fix. I’ve never seen Disk Utility accidentally make a problem worse, something the other utilities can do, even if only very occasionally.

    If Disk Utility doesn’t succeed, let DiskWarrior do battle with your damaged directory. It was our overall winner, and it deserves its excellent reputation. DiskWarrior can also show you a preview of the repairs before you accept them, which lets you check that a damaged file or folder really was fixed before DiskWarrior makes the fix permanent.

    If DiskWarrior fails, give Norton Disk Doctor a try, since it can address some problems that DiskWarrior misses. After that, try sacrificing chickens. Seriously, if the combination of Disk Utility, DiskWarrior, and Norton Disk Doctor can’t repair your disk, you can either restore your data from backup, or, if that’s not possible, decide if the data is sufficiently important to pay DriveSavers for recovery.

    I still think the most important data protection utility you should own is a backup program. But sometimes a good disk repair program can save the day by repairing minor damage quickly so you don’t have to run through the time-consuming process of reinitializing your hard disk and restoring from backup.

    [David Shayer was a senior engineer on Norton Utilities for Macintosh 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0. Before that he worked on Public Utilities, a disk repair program that won the MacUser Magazine Editor’s Choice Award, and on Sedit, a low-level disk editor.]

    PayBITS: If David’s detailed and expert testing told you whichdisk utility you should rely on, reward his efforts via PayBITS!<http://www.amazon.com/paypage/P12NE4WQ7K8ODD>Read more about PayBITS: <http://www.tidbits.com/paybits/>

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